|July Week 4|
Posted on Jun 10, 2002 – 05:42 AM by Bill McCann
This page provides daily updates on past events and anniversaries during the Final week of July. The events included are those that either happened in London or had an effect, one way or another, on the lives of Londoners.
This page provides daily updates on past events and anniversaries during the Final week of July. The events included are those that either happened in London or had an effect, one way or another, on the lives of Londoners.
Daily updates on Events during the Final week
Below are the events and anniversaries for this week both about London and Londoners and Outside London.The archive for these pages has been arranged in a series of monthly Digests. To speed up navigation, these have been further divided into four weekly instalments. These pages are all comprehensively interlinked.Each Section has its own background page which provides additional and in-depth information about many of the events and people in the daily listings. They are intended to both amuse and inform and can be found at Gazette Briefings and Historical Anecdotes .Links to the anniversaries and events in the other weeks of the month are given in the following table whilst links to the other months of the year can be found at the bottom of the page.First WeekSecond WeekThird WeekLondon and Londoners22nd1470, Sunday In the Wars of the Roses, Warwick swore allegiance to Queen Margaret and Henry VI at the French court in Angers.
1536, Friday Death of Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond and potential royal heir.
1598, Sunday Shakespeare’s Merchant of Venice was entered in Stationers’ Register.
1660, Sunday Mr Pepys has a large family dinner and goes for a walk in St James’ park where he sees a man beaten by the keeper for carrying people through the water into the enclosure.
1777, Tuesday Ann Marrow was pilloried at Charing Cross for impersonating a man and marrying three Women.
1812, Wednesday The Duke of Wellington defeated the French in the Battle of Salamanca, in Spain.
1844, Monday Birth of the English educationist Rev William Archibald Spooner.
1901, Monday In the Taff Vale Railway case, the Law Lords ruled that trade unions may be sued for the actions of their members.
1904, Friday The Royal Horticultural Society opened its new headquarters in Vincent Square, Westminster.
1910, Friday In the House of Commons the Ayes and the Noes tied at 61 on a motion to add a New clause to the Regency Bill. The Speaker, James W Lowther, cast his vote with the Ayes.
1911, Saturday George V guaranteed the creation of new peers to ensure the passage of the Veto Bill through the House of Lords.
1919, Tuesday The House of Commons, at a single sitting, approved a Bill to ratify the Treaty of Versailles.
1926, Thursday Birth of the English author Bryan Forbes.
1933, Saturday Wiley Post landed in New York to complete the first around the world solo aeroplane flight – the journey took 7 days, 18 hrs and 49.5 minutes, making 10 stops.
1938, Friday Birth of the English actor Terence Stamp.
1940, Monday The Special Operations Executive was created with a brief to support Resistance in Europe.
1946, Monday Bread rationing was introduced.
1949, Saturday The dock came to an strike end.
1951, Sunday Aneurin Bevan called on the government to discourage the U.S. from entering into a defence alliance with Spain.
1959, Wednesday The crime rate in London in 1958 was 21% above that of 1957, according to new figures.
1965, Thursday Official figures demonstrated that 1964 was the worst year for crime in London so far in the 20th century.
1965, Thursday Sir Alec Douglas Home resigned as leader of the Conservative Party.
1976, Wednesday Death of the English archaeologist Sir Mortimer Wheeler.
1986, Tuesday The House of Commons voted to ban corporal punishment in schools.
1987, Wednesday A Palestinian cartoonist who lampooned Yassar Arafat was shot and gravely wounded in Chelsea.
1991, Monday The Government of John Major introduced the Citizen’s Charter in an attempt to improve Public Services.
1993, Thursday In the House of Commons the Ayes and the Noes tied at 317 on an Amendment to the motion approving government’s policy on the Social Chapter of the Treaty on European Union done at Maastricht. The Speaker, Miss Betty Boothroyd, cast her vote with the Noes. An error in this division was discovered and one vote was struck off the Ayes on the following day.
1998, Wednesday The House of Lords voted to reject a bill that would have lowered the age of consent for homosexuals from 18 to 16.23rd
1597, Saturday Death of the Lord Chamberlain Henry Carey, 1st Lord Hundson.
1660, Monday Mr Pepys takes his oath of Allegiance and was also sworn into the Privy Seal after which he heads for the King’s Head Tavern at Charing Cross.
1715, Saturday The Opera season in London was closed early because of the Jacobite Rebellion.
1796, Saturday Charles Scoldwell, a Sheriff Officer, was convicted of stealing two ducks, and sentenced to Transportation for Seven Years.
1886, Friday Birth of the English aviator Arthur Whitten Brown.
1912, Tuesday Birth of the English actor Michael Wilding.
1931, Thursday The Civil Service Royal Commission recommended that almost all the service should be open to women.
1933, Sunday Birth of the English Architect Richard Rogers.
1934, Monday The Law making it necessary to obtain a license for flying came into effect.
1940, Tuesday The Government imposed a 24% tax on luxury goods.
1940, Tuesday The Blitz began with the first all-night air raid on London.
1940, Tuesday The Local Defence Volunteers were renamed the Home Guard by Churchill.
1957, Tuesday Picket line violence broke out as a national bus strike began to take effect.
1958, Wednesday For the first time, women were named as Peers.
1964, Thursday The Postal strike ended with workers receiving a 6.5% pay increase.
1967, Sunday In the heat of the mountain stage of the Tour de France, British cyclist Tony Simpson, 29, collapsed and died.
1986, Wednesday Prince Andrew, Duke of York, married Sarah Ferguson in Westminster Abbey.
1987, Thursday The London Daily News, the first attempt at a 24-hour newspaper in Britain ceased publication after 6 months.
1996, Tuesday The BSE scare was extended to sheep after laboratory tests showed that mad cow disease could be transmitted to sheep.
1997, Wednesday The Blair Government announced that students will have to pay tuition fees and that maintenance grants would be abolished.24th
1529, Saturday Proceedings in Henry VIII’s attempt to divorce Katharine of Aragon were brought to a halt when she exercised her right to appeal directly to Pope Clement VII.
1588, Tuesday Elizabeth I made her famous speech at Tilbury as the Spanish Armada approached Britain.
1624, Saturday Mr Chamberlain reports on the outrage that followed the torture and killing of English Merchants by agents of the Dutch East India Company.
1660, Tuesday Mr Pepys has various reactions to his been sworn to the Privy Seal.
1709, Sunday The foundation stone of Marlborough House, in Pall Mall, was laid.
1725, Friday Birth of the slave ship captain, clergyman and hymnographer John Newton.
1851, Wednesday The window tax was abolished.
1862, Thursday In the House of Commons the Ayes and the Noes tied at 53 on a Motion to disagree with a Lords Amendment to the Juries Bill. The Speaker, J Evelyn Denison, cast his vote with the Ayes.
1867, Wednesday In the House of Commons the Ayes and the Noes tied at 108 on a Motion to declare the undesirability of restricting Fellowships at Trinity College, Dublin to believers in the established church. The Speaker, J Evelyn Denison, cast his vote with the Noes.
1883, Sunday Death of the English swimmer Matthew Webb.
1895, Wednesday Birth of the English writer Robert Graves.
1902, Wednesday Birth of the English actress Nora Swinburne.
1911, Monday The House of Commons was adjourned following riots over the attempt by the House of Lords to maintain its veto.
1917, Tuesday In the House of Commons MPs were alarmed by the revelation that the war was now costing the U.K. £7 million a day.
1919, Wednesday Birth of the English film director Peter Yates.
1925, Thursday The first successful treatment with insulin was carried out on a six-year old at Guy’s Hospital.
1930, Thursday The House of Commons approved the London Naval Treaty.
1935, Wednesday Greetings telegrams were introduced by the Post Office.
1946, Wednesday The Fuel Minister, Emmanuel Shinwell, warned that there was not enough coal to get through the winter.
1956, Tuesday The Prime Minister, Anthony Eden, urged the banks to maintain their credit squeeze.
1962, Tuesday The Maloney Report on consumer protection was published.
1974, Wednesday Death of the English physicist James Chadwick.
1980, Wednesday Death of the English actor Peter Sellers.
1986, Thursday The Thatcher Government announced that the Royal Ordnance was to be sold by tender.
1996, Wednesday Buckingham Palace announced that the Queen’s Christmas broadcast would no longer be a BBC exclusive.25th
1222, MondayA wrestling match between the citizens of Westminster and those of the City at St-Giles-in-the-Fields was easily won by the Londoners and a return match was fixed for the following week when the denizens of Westminster planned brutal revenge!1554, Wednesday Mary I and Phillip II of Spain were married at Winchester Cathedral, a few days after their first meeting.
1561, FridaySt Olave’s Grammar school in Southwark, a descendant of the chapel school of St Mary Magdalene, received its royal patent.
1603, Monday The Coronation of James I, delayed because of the plague, finally took place on a very diminished scale.
1834, Friday Death of the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge .
1837, Tuesday Robert Cocking made a parachute jump from a hot air balloon 5,000 feet above Kennington Common. Unfortunately the cone-shaped parachute inverted and he became the first person to die in a parachute jump.
1848, Tuesday Birth of the statesman Arthur James Balfour.
1854, Tuesday The first municipal cemetery in London was opened at Horse Shoe Farm at Finchley for the vestries of St Pancras and Islington.
1859, Monday Having been in decline since 1841, Vauxhall Gardens finally closed. It marked the occasion, the end of the great era of London’s Pleasure Gardens, with a concert and a fireworks display which emblazoned the night sky with the words “Farewell For Ever.”
1887, Monday Death of the social investigator and founder of Punch Henry Mayhew .
1912, Thursday The first International Eugenics Congress began at the University of London. It aimed to discuss the laws of heredity so that it may affect the improvement of the race.
1919, Friday Four-day-old coal strike was settled as miners accept a 14.2% increase in piece rates.
1925, Saturday The Bishop of Durham fled in a motorboat after facing abuse from a crowd during the Miners’ Gala.
1937, Sunday A drawing of Christ and the Woman of Samaria at the Well by Rembrandt was discovered in Barnard Castle.
1937, Sunday Birth of the archaeologist Colin Renfrew.
1947, FridayOverseas Trade Minister Harold Wilson and other trade envoys to Moscow were hurt in an air accident.
1948, Sunday Bread rationing in Britain was ended.1950, Tuesday Official figures revealed that production of television sets had jumped by 250% this year.
1960, MondayIn London a conference on the future of Nyasaland began.
1966, MondayParliament voted to nationalize steel.
1967 TuesdayJudith Hart replaced Margaret Herbison as minister of Social Security.26th
1803, Tuesday The first public railway, consisting of trucks drawn by horses and mules, was opened. It ran from Frying Pan Creek on the Thames at Wandsworth to Pitlake Meadows in Croydon, passing through Merton, Mitcham and Wadden.
1866, Thursday The first Canoe Club opened in Richmond.
1869, Monday The Disestablishment Bill was passed, officially dissolving the Church of Ireland.
1881, Tuesday The Evening News was launched, It merged with the Evening Standard in 1980.
1881, Tuesday The death of the writer George Borrow.
1886, Monday William Gladstone was replaced by Lord Salisbury as Prime Minister.
1890, Saturday The 26 acres of Dulwich Park became public property thanks to a corporate gift on the part of Dulwich College.
1894, Thursday Birth of the author Aldous Huxley.
1890, Saturday From the roof of the General Post Office in Aldersgate, Guglielmo Marconi made the first public transmission of wireless (radio) signals.
1901, Friday A sudden flood hit the City of London after a phenomenal thunderstorm.
1945, Thursday The Labour Party won a landslide victory in the general election. Churchill resigned as Prime Minister.
1957, Friday Official figures revealed that 1.5 million people were living alone, twice as many as in 1931.
1958, Saturday Queen Elizabeth II conferred the title “Prince of Wales” on her eldest son, Prince Charles.
1958, Saturday Debutantes were presented at court for the last time.1965, The GPO announced that it was switching to numbers-only telephones in anticipation of international direct-dialling.
1982, At the Falklands remembrance service, the Archbishop of Canterbury Dr Runcie declared that War has always been detestable.
1990, It was announced that the Fraud Squad would investigate the National Union of Mineworkers’ accounts over Soviet miners’ untraced donations.
x1994, Tuesday A car bomb badly damaged the Israeli embassy in London, injuring 14 people.27th
1586, Wednesday Sir Walter Raleigh, returning from Virginia, brought the first tobacco to England.
1663, MondayParliament passed a second Navigation Act, requiring all goods bound for the colonies be sent in British ships from British ports.
1694, Friday The Bank of England was founded by act of Parliament.
1909, Tuesday MPs gave a second reading to the South African Union Bill, but criticised the denial of vote to Negroes.
1926, London’s first traffic roundabout came into operation at Piccadilly Circus.
1928, Friday The imperial wireless and cable conference recommended the merger of all wireless and cable services in the British Empire.
1931, Monday It was officially announced that unemployment stood at a record 2.71 million.
1938, Wednesday Sir Samuel Hoare announced his plans to reform the British prison system.
1942, MondaySweet rationing was introduced in Britain.
1945, Friday The chiefs of staff had their last conference with Churchill.
1961, Thursday Bank interest rates were increased by 2% to 7%.
1962, Friday The Government set up the National Income Commission.
1964, Monday Churchill paid his last visit to the House of Commons.
1966, Wednesday The Trades union Congress general council voted to back Harold Wilson’s wage freeze.
1967, Thursday The Sexual Offences Act decriminalized homosexual acts between consenting males over 21.
1988, Wednesday Margaret Thatcher met with Chief Buthelezi, the most prominent black leader opposed to economic sanctions on South Africa.
1991, Sunday The Sunday Times revealed that British government ministers approved the export of chemicals to Iraq which may have been used to make the mustard gas used against the Kurds.28th
1540, Wednesday Thomas Cromwell, who had arranged Henry VIII’s unsatisfactory marriage to Anne of Cleves, was executed for treason on Tower Hill.
1540, Wednesday Henry VIII secretly married Catherine Howard.
1675, Wednesday The death of Bulstrode Whitelocke, an influential English lawyer during the Commonwealth, took place.
1858, Wednesday Fingerprints were first used as a means of identification by Sir John Frederick William Herschel. He also established a register of fingerprints.
1901, Sunday Queen Alexandra and her grandson, Prince Edward, were taken ill with colds after attending a medal presentation in an open carriage during a heavy rainstorm.
1912, Sunday Thirty thousand workers from all over the country voted to continue the transport strike.
1915, Wednesday American novelist Henry James became a British citizen.
1916, Friday A Royal proclamation was issued banning the import of cocaine and opium.
1920, Wednesday Lloyd George appealed to the United States, at the statue of Abraham Lincoln in Parliament Square, saying that a bleeding world needed American aid.
1930, Monday The airship R.101 began its maiden flight across the Atlantic.
1933, Friday The price of a detached house at Mill Hill, just north of London, reached £800.
1949, Thursday The government admitted that the newly introduced national Health Service was costing 2 shillings and sixpence a head per week, almost twice as much as had first been estimated.
1952, Monday The new Soviet ambassador to the court of St. James, Andrei Gromyko, took up his post.
1954, Wednesday Britain denied a Cypriot request for union with Greece because it had plans for major military base on the island.
1959, Tuesday The Postmaster General, Ernest Marples, inaugurated the first post codes and the first post code sorting machine in Norwich.
1961, Friday The High Court quashed Viscount Stansgate’s (Anthony Wedgwood Benn) election to the House of Commons and appointed his defeated opponent as MP.
1965, Wednesday Edward Heath became leader of the Conservative Party.
1966, Thursday Florence Nagle, 70, won a 20-year fight to be the first woman in Britain granted a license to train racehorses.
1978, Friday On the London market Gold exceeded $200 per ounce for the first time in Europe.
1994, Thursday The novelist and Peer, Geoffrey Archer was cleared of insider dealing.28th
1911, Saturday The government reinforced the Atlantic fleet which was placed on alert over the Moroccan crisis.
1913, Tuesday Birth of Jo Grimond, British politician and Liberal party leader.
1926, Thursday London County Council medical officers praised the hygienic value of modern fashions.
1932, Friday Death of Sir William Willcocks, engineer of the Asswan Dam1937, Thursday Neville Chamberlain sent a note to Mussolini as a peace gesture.
1942, Wednesday The U.S. Lend-Lease representative, Averell Harriman, and the British production minister, Oliver Lyttleton, formed a combined production and resources board to control the war industry.
1948, Thursday The 14th modern Olympic Games opened in London – the first in 12 years, due to World War II.
1949, Saturday YThe first regular televised weather forecast was broadcast by the BBC.
1954, Thursday The House of Commons approved British-Egyptian proposals for the evacuation of the Suez Canal.
1964, Wednesday he first Brook Advisory Clinic opened to give family planning advice to unmarried couples.
1980, Tuesday Margaret Thatcher announced the creation of seven Enterprise Zones in areas of high unemployment.
1981, Wednesday Prince Charles married Lady Diana Spencer.
1988, Friday The Education Reform bill received the Royal Assent.30th
1540, Friday Henry VIII had three “heretical” Protestant Divines burned at Smithfield whilst three Catholic priests were hung on a gallows outside the church of St Bartholomew the Great for opposing his claim of Supremacy.
1771, Tuesday Death of the poet Thomas Grey.
1898, Saturday Birth of the sculptor Henry Moore.
1855, Monday The London And Middlesex Archaeological Society was established at Southampton Street, Covent Garden.
1900, Monday Parliament passed progressive legislation: a mine act outlawing child labour, a railroad act to enhance safety and a workmen’s compensation act covering illness.
1900, Monday The London underground railway continued its expansion with the opening of the first section of the Central Line, running from Shepherd’s Bush to Bank.
1910, Saturday Captain Kendall of the ship Montrose sent a wireless message that wanted murderer, Dr. Crippen, was on board his ship. A police officer was immediately despatched on a faster vessel.
1918, Tuesday The duke of Bedford sold his Covent Garden estate to the Covent Garden Estate Company which sold most of the buildings but retained the market buildings.
1934, Monday Stanley Baldwin declared that the frontier of England was not now the chalk cliffs of Dover but the Rhine.
1935, Tuesday ‘Penguin’ paperback books, founded by Allen Lane, went on sale in Britain.
1936, Thursday In it’s first week of operation, 248,828 calls were made to the GPO’s Speaking Clock.
1953, Thursday MPs debated a treaty with Libya, which would give Britain military bases for 20 years in exchange for aid.
1956, Monday Anthony Eden told General Nasser that he could not have the Suez Canal, and imposed an arms embargo on Egypt.
1962, Monday Britain repaid the loan it had received from the International Monetary Fund in the previous year.
1966, Saturday England won the Football World Cup in London, beating West Germany 4 – 2.
1970, Thursday Twenty-eight thalidomide children were awarded damages totalling £485,000.
1977, Saturday It was announced that Colour-TV licenses were to go up to £21 and black and white to £9.
1987, Thursday Politicians Jim Callaghan and Roy Jenkins received life peerages and the ex-Liberal MP Clement Freud was knighted.1988, Saturday Paddy Ashdown became the first leader of the Social and Liberal Democrats (now the Liberal Democrats).
1990, Monday The MP Ian Gow, friend and adviser to Margaret Thatcher, was killed by a terrorist car bomb at his home.
1998, Thursday The Lord Chief Justice overturned the murder conviction of Derek Bentley, who was hanged in 1953 for the murder of a police officer.31st
1703, Saturday The author Daniel Defoe was made to stand in the pillory as punishment for offending the government and church with his satire The Shortest Way With Dissenters.
1923, TuesdayRoyal assent given to several bills including housing, liquor, and the Oxford and Cambridge bills.
1925, Friday Parliament passed the Unemployment Insurance Act.
1927, Sunday Birth of the dramatist Peter Nichols.
1928, Tuesday A government committee concluded that smallpox could be eradicated from the world by systematic vaccination.
1943, SaturdayDriving for pleasure was banned in Britain.
1965, Saturday Cigarette advertising was banned on British Television.
1997 Thursday Home Secretary Jack Straw ordered a judicial inquiry into the police handling of racist attacks such as the murder of black teenager Stephen Lawrence.Outside London22nd1298, Tuesday England defeated Scotland at the battle of Falkirk.
1478, Wednesday Birth of the King of Spain, Philip I.
1822, Monday Birth of the Austrian monk and botanist Gregor Mendel.
1996, Monday The European Commission took measures to ban parts of sheep, goats, and deer from human consumption as fears about BSE spread from cattle to other species.23rd
1745, Tuesday Charles Stuart, the Young Pretender, returned to Britain.
1757, Saturday Death of the Italian composer Domenico Scarlatti.
1864 Saturday The English explorer, Dr Livingstone, returned to Britain.24th
1567, Thursday Mary Queen of Scots abdicated and James VI was declared King of Scotland with the Earl of Moray as regent.
1595, Thursday Spanish forces raided Penwith in Cornwall, and razed Penzance and the outlying fishing villages.
1645, Thursday Bridgewater was taken by the parliamentarian army.
1704, Sunday Admiral Sir George Rooke captured Gibraltar.
1802, Saturday Birth of the French author Alexandre Dumas Père.
1926, Saturday In Manchester, the first greyhound racing track opened at Belle Vue.
1935, Wednesday A secret experiment at Porton down successfully detected an aircraft with a prototype radar device.
1958, Thursday Birth of the English actor Joe McGann.25th
1917, Wednesday Margaretha Zelle, the Dutch spy known as Mata Hari, was sentenced to death.
1943, Sunday Benito Mussolini was forced to resign as Dictator of Italy, bringing an end to the Fascist regime.
1952, Friday The European Coal and Steel Community, established by the treaty of Paris 1951, was ratified.
1978, Tuesday The first test-tube baby in Britain was born – Louise Joy Brown, at Oldham General Hospital, Lancashire.
1992, Saturday The 25th Olympic Games were held in Barcelona.26th
1745, Friday The first recorded women’s cricket match was played near Guildford, Surrey, between teams from Hambledon and Bramley.
1856, Saturday Birth of the Irish playwright and critic George Bernard 1912, Suffragettes attempt to set fire to Nuneham House in Oxfordshire, home of the Colonial Secretary.
1976, Monday A massive release of poisonous dioxin gas from a pesticide plant near Seveso in Italy killed domestic and farm animals in the surrounding region.
1987, Sunday Cyclist Steve Roche became the first Irishman, and only the second non-continental European, to win the Tour de France.
1987, Sunday Cyclist Steve Roche became the first Irishman, and only the second non-continental European, to win the Tour de France.27th
1689, SaturdayGovernment forces defeated the Scottish Jacobites at the Battle of Killiecrankie.1866, Friday Brunel’s The Great Eastern arrived at Heart’s Content in Newfoundland, having successfully laid the transatlantic telegraph cable.28th
1586, Thursday The first potato arrived in Britain, brought from Colombia by sir Thomas Harriot.
1794, Monday Maximilien Robespierre and 19 other French Revolutionaries went to the guillotine.
1844, Sunday Birth of the poet Gerard Manley Hopkins.
1866, Saturday Birth of the author Beatrix Potter.
1914, Tuesday Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, thus beginning World War I.
1938, Thursday The Cunard-White Star liner Mauritania was launched at Birkenhead.
1942, Tuesday Death of the pioneering British archaeologist W.M. Flinders Petrie.28th
1588, Monday The Spanish Armada was defeated and scattered by the weather and an English fleet.
1900, Sunday King Umberto I of Italy was assassinated by an anarchist and succeeded by Victor Emmanuel.
1902, Tuesday Edward VII was seen smoking on the deck of the royal yacht as he recovered from his operation for appendicitis.
1970, Wednesday Death of the conductor Sir John Barbirolli.
1983, Friday Death of the British actor David Niven.30th
1718, Wednesday Death of William Penn, the London Quaker and founder of Pennsylvania.
1793, Tuesday Toronto, which was known as York until 1834, was founded by General John Simcoe.
1818, Thursday Birth of the novelist Emily Bronte.
1899, Sunday Birth of the pianist Gerald Moore.
1901, Tuesday The government sent Mrs. Henry Fawcett to inspect concentration camps after reports that Boer women and children were being badly treated by the British.
1948, Friday The world’s first radar station went into operation at the port of Liverpool.
1963, Tuesday Kim Philby, British intelligence officer from 1940 and Soviet agent from 1933, fled to the USSR.31st1498, Tuesday Columbus arrived at Trinidad on his third voyage.
1910, Sunday Dr Crippen was arrested on board the SS Montrose. He was the first criminal to be caught by the use of radio.
1919, Thursday The Weimar Republic was established in post-war Germany.
1935, Wednesday George Bernard Shaw’s The Simpleton of the Unexpected Isles opened during the Malvern Festival.
1942, Friday The Oxford Committee for Famine Relief (later called Oxfam) was founded in Oxford.
1954, Saturday Mount Godwin-Austin (K2) in the Himalayas was climbed for the first time by an Italian expedition, led by Ardito Desio.
1991, Wednesday At a superpower summit in Moscow, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), and announced that they would be co-sponsoring a Middle East peace conference.