|June Week 1|
Posted on Jun 10, 2002 – 05:15 AM by Bill McCann
This page provides daily updates on past events and anniversaries during the First week of June. The events included are those that either happened in London or had an effect, one way or another, on the lives of Londoners.
Daily updates on Events during the First week
Below are the events and anniversaries for this week both about London and Londoners and Outside London.The archive for these pages has been arranged in a series of monthly Digests. To speed up navigation, these have been further divided into four weekly instalments. These pages are all comprehensively interlinked.The Outside London section offers daily updates on a range of political, cultural, scientific and religious events and anniversaries in History and which had, in one way or another, an effect on London Life.Each Section has its own background page which provides additional and in-depth information about many of the events and people in the daily listings. They are intended to both amuse and inform and can be found at Gazette Briefings and Historical Anecdotes .Links to the anniversaries and events in the other weeks of the month are given in the following table whilst links to the other months of the year can be found at the bottom of the page.Second WeekThird WeekFinal WeekLondon and Londoners1st835, Tuesday There were heavy Viking raids against the Isle of Sheppey. The east and south-east bear the brunt of their piratical attacks.
1533, Saturday Anne Boleyn was crowned as Queen of England.
1563, Tuesday Birth of the English Statesman Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury.
1660, Friday Mr Pepys “fooled away all the afternoon” at nine-pins and lost two shillings.
1666, Friday Mr Evelyn is in his garden when he hears the sound of the cannon warning of a Dutch invasion and sets off immediately for Rochester.
1728, Saturday The Royal Academy of Musick collapsed due to intrigue and rivalries between actors and actresses as well as financial difficulties.
1737, Wenesday Handel’s Didone abbandonata was performed at the Theatre Royal Covent Garden by Royal command.
1774, Wednesday Parliament enacted the Boston Port Bill which ordered the closure of the Port of Boston.
1815, Thursday Death of the English caricaturist, Londoner James Gillray.
1845, Sunday A homing pigeon completed the 11,000 km trip from Namibia to London in 55 days.
1851, Sunday Birth of the English mathematician Edwin Elliott.
1856, Sunday Queen Victoria instructed the Governor General of India, Viscount Hardinge, that in his treaties with the defeated Sikhs local customs should not be violated.
1882, Thursday Birth of the English poet, Londoner John Drinkwater.
1887, Wednesday Birth of the English biologist and Humanist, Londoner Julian Huxley.
1887, Wednesday Birth of the English actor, Londoner Clive Brook.
1899, Thursday Birth of the English mathematician Edward Titchmarsh.
1914, Monday Suffragettes set fire to Wargrave Church, near Henley.
1915, Tuesday The First Air Raid on London.
1923, Friday The actress Mrs. Hilton Philipson became the third woman elected to the House of Commons.
1924, Sunday Birth of Sir John Tooley, general director of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, 1980-88.
1930, Sunday Birth of the English actor, Londoner Edward Woodward.
1934, Friday Birth of the English actress, Londoner Sylvia Syms.
1935, Saturday The Driving test became compulsory in Britain.
1937, Tuesday The Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, announced the withdrawal of the defence tax on profits which had been proposed in the Budget.
1938, Wednesday The Bren gun was issued to the armed forces service. The name was derived from Brno, the Czech town where it was first made, and Enfield, where it was made in Britain.
1941, SundayClothes rationing was introduced and Utility clothing and furniture were introduced.
1946, Saturday The first British television licences were issued. The combined television and radio licence cost £2.
1946, Saturday Milkmen went on strike in support of a demand for a minimum weekly wage of £5/4s/6d.
1947, Sunday The Minister of Labour, George Isaacs, pleaded for British women to work to help rebuilt the economy after the War.
1949, Wednesday The British government granted independence to Cyrenaica (East-Libya).
1953, Monday Gordon Richards became the first jockey to be knighted.
1957, Saturday First Premium Bonds were drawn. The top prize of £1,000 went to the holder of Bond Number 1KF 341150.
1958, Sunday The Clean Air Act came into force.
1976, Tuesday The “Cod War” between the UK and Iceland came to an end.
1977, Wednesday The maximum speed limits on British roads were changed to 70mph.
1980, Sunday Musicians in the BBC orchestras went on strike in protest against cutbacks.
1985, Saturday Death of the British lexicographer Eric Partridge.
1999, Tuesday Death of the English electronics engineer and inventor Sir Christopher Cockerell.2nd1539, Monday The Act of Six Articles, a backlash against extreme Protestantism in the English Church, was promulgated.
1619, Wednesday A treaty was signed between England and Holland, regulating the trade in the East between the English and Dutch East India Companies.
1627, Saturday Charles I granted a charter of incorporation to the Guiana Company.
1660, Saturday Mr Pepys spends his afternoon drinking white wine and sugar and eating pickled oysters. He drinks another bottle of wine before going to bed.
1662, Monday Mr Evelyn loses a swarm of bees and remains unimpressed by a Venetian gondola.
1666, Saturday Mr Evelyn seeing no sign of an engagement with the Dutch returns to London and reports to the King.
1686, Wednesday Mr Evelyn reports on storms, rains and foul weather such as has not been seen before in June.
1686, Wednesday The publication of Newton’s Principia was arranged at a meeting of the Royal Society. The minutes of the meeting record that the astronomer Edmund Halley would “undertake the business of looking after it and printing it at his own charge”.
1687, Thursday Mr Evelyn receives a Royal grant of £6,000 to pay of an old debt incurred by his Father in Law.
1780, Friday The Duke of Richmond laid before Parliament a Bill for parliamentary reform and which would grant universal adult male suffrage.
1780, Friday First day of the anti-Catholic riots known as the Gordon Riots began.
1850, Sunday Birth of the English physiologist, Londoner Sir Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer.
1864, ThursdayBirth of the English actor, Londoner Ben Webster.
1881, Thursday Birth of the English electronics engineer, Londoner Henry Round.
1887, Thursday Birth of the biologist and humanist, Londonor Julian Huxley.
1891, Tuesday Death of the English engineer Sir John Hawkshaw who built Charing Cross and Cannon Street stations and the District line on the underground .
1896, Tuesday The first radio patent was issued to Guglielmo Marconi for his wireless telegraphy apparatus.
1910, Thursday Londoner Charles Stewart Rolls became the first person to make the round-trip flight across English Channel.
1913, Monday Death of the English poet Laureate Alfred Austin (Poet Laureate 1906).
1920, Wednesday Birth of the English actor, Londoner Johnny Speight .
1926, Wednesday Death of the Scottish Bacteriologist Sir William Boog Leishman.
1929, Sunday In London, eighteen countries signed a new international shipping safety accord.
1930, Monday The News Chronicle was formed by the merger of the Daily News and the Daily Chronicle. It merged with the Daily Mail in 1960.
1931, Tuesday Unusually, George V created no new peers in his Birthday Honours list.
1942, Tuesday Death of the Scottish mathematician Andrew Forsyth.
1953, Tuesday The coronation of Queen Elizabeth II took place in Westminster Abbey. Walton’s Coronation Te Deum was composed for the occasion.
1965, Wednesday In the House of Commons a vote on a Motion to retain wording of the Finance (No. 2) Bill was tied at 281 votes each for the Ayes and Nays. The Speaker, Horace Maybray King cast his vote favour. (The Bill imposed a Corporation Tax on company profits).
1975, Monday For the first time since the current records began, it snowed in London in June.3rd1162, Sunday Londoner Thomas à Becket was consecrated as Archbishop of Canterbury.
1594, Monday Death of the 96th Bishop of London John Aylmer.
1605, Monday James I feeds the lions at the tower.
1657, Wednesday Death of the English physician William Harvey.
1658, Thursday Mr Evelyn witnesses the sensation of a large whale at Greenwich.
1660, Sunday Mr Pepys does his accounts and finds he has turned a handy profit in the past few weeks.
1665, Saturday On hearing that the English fleet defeated the Dutch at the Battle of Lowestoft, Mr Evelyn makes arrangements for the wounded and prisoners.
1666, Sunday Mr Evelyn hears that the Duke of Albemarle’s fleet is still engaged with the Dutch off Dunkirk.
1683, Sunday Mr Sadler discovered a well which he immediately exploited.
1746, Tuesday Birth of the English composer James Hook, resident organist at the pleasure gardens of Marylebone and Vauxhall.
1761, Wednesday Birth of the English army officer, Londoner Henry Shrapnel.
1853, Friday Birth of the English archaeologist, Londoner William Flinders Petrie.
1865, Saturday Birth of George V.
1907, Monday The Government abandoned the Irish Council Bill after Nationalist opposition.
1918, Monday Birth of the English actor, Londoner Patrick Cargill.
1921, Friday Lord Byng was appointed Governor General of Canada.
1927, Friday Expelled Soviet diplomats left from Victoria station as sympathizers, including Labour MPs, sang The Red Flag.
1942, Wednesday The Government announced that it was to take control of the coal mines.
1953, Wednesday Birth of the English film actor, Londoner John Moulder Brown.
1982, Thursday In London, the Israeli Ambassador, Shlomo Argov, was wounded in an attempted assassination.4th1210, Friday King John left London on an expedition to Ireland to enforce his authority there.
1550, Wednesday Lord Robert Dudley married Amy Robsart.
1660, Monday An exasperated Mr Evelyn is delayed in getting to the King by the great crowds thronging the Court.
1660, Monday Mr Pepys makes his first foray into foreign exchange.
1663, Thursday Death of William Juxon the 77th Archbishop of Canterbury.
1685, Thursday Mr Evelyn hears about the persecution of the French Huguenots.
1731, Friday A vicar of Heston tries to collect tithes for an exempt farm.
1738, Sunday Birth of George III.
1762, Friday The new peal of ten bells in St Mary-le-Bow was rung for the first time.
1770, Monday Birth of the English pianist and music publisher James Hewitt.
1809, Sunday Birth of the English mathematician, Londoner John Pratt.
1864, Saturday Death of the English economist Nassau William Senior.
1878, Tuesday A secret Anglo-Turkish agreement was made to check Russian advance in Asia Minor and gave the world Jingoism.
1898, Saturday Birth of the English actress and singer, Londoner Gertrude Lawrence [Gertrude Alexandria Dagmar Lawrence-Klasen].
1901, Tuesday In a speech at Edward VII’s reception for the delegates of the New York Chamber of Commerce, Andrew Carnegie says the time will come when the continental powers will combine to smash up this little island of Great Britain.
1927, Saturday Birth of the English actor, Londoner Geoffrey Palmer.
1931, Thursday Cuts in unemployment pay were urged by a royal commission as a means of averting an economic crisis.
1961, Sunday Death of the English physical biochemist William Thomas Astbury.5th1600, Thursday Arrest of the Earl of Essex.
1619, Saturday Mr Chamberlain describes the arrival of the mourning James I in London.
1624, Saturday Mr Chamberlain provides a thorough round-up of the recent London gossip.
1625, Sunday Death of the English organist and composer Orlando Gibbons.
1660, Tuesday Mr Pepys has a lie in, goes fishing, plays nine-pins again, does his accounts again and plays barber’s music in the evening.
1665, Monday Mr Evelyn discusses arrangements for the Prisoners of War with the King.
1666, Tuesday Mr Evelyn goes up to town to get news of the Duke of Albemarle’s battle.
1716, Tuesday Death of the English mathematician Roger Cotes.
1724, Friday Death of the English political agitator Henry Sacheverell.
1734, Wednesday The new building for the Bank of England was opened.
1811, Wednesday A vote in the House of Commons on a Motion for an inquiry into causes of delays in Suits in the High Court of Chancery was tied at 36 Ayes and Nays. It was passed by the casting vote of the Speaker.
1826, Monday Death of the German composer Carl Maria von Weber in London home of Sir George Smart.
1884, Thursday Birth of the English novelist, Londoner Dame Ivy Compton-Burnett.
1897, Friday Birth of the Germano-English music patron Sir Robert Mayer.
1908, Friday The Miners’ Federation decided to affiliate to the Labour Representation Committee.
1911, Monday Death of military leader Edric Frederick The Lord Gifford V.C.
1922, Monday In London, Irishman Louis Brennan announced his invention of a helicopter that ascends at right angles to ground.
1924, Thursday The British government appointed a Northern Ireland representative to the (cosmetic) border commission.
1929, Wednesday Ramsay MacDonald formed his second administration.
1930, Thursday The Labour government rejected a plan for a Channel Tunnel between England and France.
1959, Friday Elizabeth II convened the NATO nations, who had assembled in order to reaffirm unity.
1960, Sunday Death of Margaret Williams, famed portrait painter of the British royal.
1979, Tuesday The 101st Archbishop of Canterbury, Frederick Donald Coggan, announced his retirement.
1995, Monday A leaked finding of an official inquiry into arms sales to Iraq accused government minister William Waldegrave of misleading parliament.6th1522, Friday Henry VIII and the visiting Holy Roman Emperor Charles V progressed from Greenwich to Blackfriars.
1660, Wednesday Mr Pepys hears about the new Court appointments and sends have a oat made for him against his imminent return to town.
1664, Monday War broke out between England and Holland in the colonies and at sea.
1666, Wednesday Mr Evelyn finally discovers the inconclusive result of the battle off Dunkirk and describes the celebrations at the “victory”.
1762, Sunday Death of the English sailor and explorer George Anson.
1778, Saturday Birth of the English Dandy, Londoner George (Beau) Brummell.
1820, Tuesday Caroline, Princess of Wales, whom George IV wished to divorce, triumphantly entered London demanding her recognition as queen.
1832, Wednesday Death of the English philosopher and jurist, Londoner Jeremy Bentham.
1840, Saturday Birth of the English composer, organist and music scholar Londoner, Sir John Stainer.
1844, Thursday The Factory Act restricted female workers to a 12-hour day and children between eight and 13 years were limited to working a six-and-a-half hour day.
1895, Thursday Birth of the English soprano, Londoner Grete Stueckgold.
1907, Thursday Secretary for India, John Morley, asserted that the U.K. will not withdraw from India under any circumstances.
1907, Thursday Persil, the first household detergent, was marketed in Britain by Henkel et Cie, of Düsseldorf.
1921, Monday George V opened the newly completed Southwark Bridge.
1936, Saturday The Emperor of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie, arrived on a State Visit.
1947, Friday Death of the English critic and essayist James Agate.
1977, Monday The signal was given for Beacons to be lit across the nation to celebrate the Queen’s Silver Jubilee.
1997, Friday The Bank of England raised interest rates for the first time after being given independent powers to set them.7th1535, Monday John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, was tried for treason for refusing to conform.
1607, Sunday James I and Prince Charles dined at Merchant Taylor’s Hall.
1631, Tuesday A Chapel of ease was established at Hammersmith.
1660, Thursday Mr Pepys is woken at 3 am when the sailors wash the deck and “the water came pouring into my mouth”.
1665, Wednesday Mr Evelyn arranges to use the Savoy Hospital for the sick and wounded.
1672, Friday News arrived that the Dutch Admiral de Ruyter was successful in action against the combined English and French fleets in Southwold Bay.
1695, Friday Cabs were banned from Hyde Park.
1732, Wednesday The new Vauxhall pleasure gardens were opened.
1754, Friday Captain John Lancey was executed at Execution Dock for burning a Ship at the Instigation of a Member of Parliament.
1832, Thursday The long fought over Reform Bill became law; over 140 parliamentary seats were redistributed, and in the boroughs all antiquated forms of franchise were eliminated and the franchise was extended to include leaseholders paying a minimum of £10 rent per annum, while in the counties the 40-shilling freehold qualification was retained and certain lease-holders acquired the vote.
1838, Thursday On a Motion for an humble address to Her Majesty praying that she will appoint an engineer to report on the best line for a railway between Edinburgh and Glasgow and the North of England, the House of Commons was tied with 53 Ayes and Nays. The Speaker cast his vote with the Nays and the Motion was denied.
1866, Thursday On a Motion that Mr. Speaker do leave the Chair (and therefore that the House go into Committee) on the Transubstantiation Etc. Declaration Abolition Bill the House of Commons was tied with 46 Ayes and Nays. The Speaker cast his vote with the Ayes and the Motion was Passed.
1873, Saturday Birth of the English pianist and conductor, Londoner Landon Ronald [Landon Ronald Russell].
1923, Wednesday George V granted a charter of incorporation to the Federation of British Industries.
1931, Sunday Birth of the English actress, Londoner Virginia McKenna.
1931, Sunday Britain’s most violent earthquake on record was felt from the English Channel to the Scottish Highlands.
1935, Thursday After a landslide Conservative win in the General Election, Stanley Baldwin, Conservative, succeeded Ramsay MacDonald as Prime Minister.
1945, Wednesday Benjamin Britten’s Peter Grimes premieres at Sadler’s Wells. The composer’s lover, Peter Pears sang the title role.
1948, Monday In London, the U.S., Britain and France agreed to keep troops in Germany until the peace of Europe was secured.
1954, Monday Suicide of the English mathematician, Londoner Alan Turing. His prosecution for homosexuality in 1952 was followed by constant surveillance by the security forces.
1960, Tuesday The first National Health Service hearing aids were issued.
1961, Wednesday American President John F Kennedy arrives on a State Visit.
1970, Sunday Death of the English novelist, Londoner E M Forster.
1976, Monday It was announced that the Callaghan government was to receive loans of £3,000 million from ten nations to support sterling.
1979, Thursday The first direct elections for the European Parliament were held.
1994, Tuesday Death of the English playwright and journalist Dennis Potter.
1995, Wednesday A High Court judge upheld the ban on homosexuals serving in the British armed forces, but expressed his regret that the law obliged him to do so.Outside London1st1485, Wednesday Matthias of Hungary captured Vienna and made it his capital.
1495, Monday The first record of Scotch Whisky, which was mentioned in Exchequer Rolls of Scotland. The distiller was named as Friar John Cor.
1500, Monday Pope Alexander VI proclaimed a Jubilium – a year of special piety and devotion – and called on all Catholic rulers to crusade against the Turks which would be financed by a special tithe.
1653,Wednesday Birth of German organist and composer Georg Muffat.
1666, Friday An English fleet under Lord Albemarle fought an inconclusive battle with the Dutch off the Dunes of Dunkirk.
1679, Sunday The Scottish Covenanters defeated an English army led by John Graham of Claverhouse at Drumclog.
1755, Sunday Birth of the English composer Federigo Fiorillo.
1757, Wednesday Birth of the Austrian piano maker Ignaz Joseph Pleyel.
1771, Saturday Birth of the Italian composer Ferdinando Paer.
1794, Sunday The English admiral, Richard, Lord Howe, defeated a French Fleet in the Channel. The battle became known as The Glorious First of June.
1796, Wednesday Birth of the French physicist Sadi Carnot.
1803, Wednesday Birth of the Russian composer Mikhail Glinka.
1812, Monday Death of the Irish chemist Richard Kirwan.
1815, Thursday Birth of the Russian mathematician Osip Somov.
1822, Saturday Death of the French mineralogist René-Just Haüy.
1826, Thursday Birth of the piano maker F. W. Bechstein.
1834, Sunday Birth of the German cellist Wilhelm Muller.
1840, Monday Birth of the English novelist and poet Thomas Hardy.
1857, Monday Birth of the English composer Edward Elgar,
1867, Saturday Death of the German mathematician Karl Von Staudt.
1878, Saturday Birth of the English poet John Masefield (Poet Lauerate 1830).
1879, Sunday Birth of the Russian pianist Mark Hambourg.
1881, Wednesday Birth of the Hungarian contralto Margaret Matzenauer.
1884, Sunday Birth of the Austrian mathematician Eduard Helly.
1891, Monday Birth of the Swedish soprano Sigrid Onegin.
1899, Thursday Birth of the German pianist Werner Haas.
1903, Monday Birth of the English organist and composer Percy Whitlock.
1904, Tuesday First performance of Richard Strauss’ Sinfonia Domestica in Frankfurt.
1905, Thursday Birth of the English actor Robert Newton.
1906, Friday In Madrid, King Alfonso XIII and Queen Victoria Eugenia appeared in public after yesterday’s bombing by anarchists. The King was hit by shrapnel but serious injury was prevented by the chain he wore.
1907, Saturday Birth of the English aeronautical engineer Sir Frank Whittle.
1907, Saturday In Paris, Pathe released La Lutte pour la Vie [Struggle for Life] the story of a railroad worker who makes good, written by Andre Herze.
1909, Tuesday Birth of the Polish violinist Szymon Goldberg.
1923, Friday First performace of Delius’ incidental music to Hassan in Darnstadt.
1926, Tuesday Birth of the American film actress Marilyn Monroe.
1926, Tuesday The World’s Fair opened in Philadelphia.
1928, Friday Birth of the English comedian Bob Monkhouse.
1934, Friday Former Prime Minister Lloyd George helped troops to fight a 1,000-acre heath fire near his home in Surrey.
1934, Friday Birth of the American singer and film actor Pat Boone.
1939, Thursday The British submarine Thetissank in Liverpool Bay with the loss of 99 lives.
1941, Sunday Death of the English novelist Hugh Walpole.
1941, Saturday Death of the Prussian mathematician Kurt Hensel.
1941, Sunday Birth of the Dutch conductor Edo de Waart.
1942, Monday Birth of the flamenco guitarist Paco Pena.
1943, Tuesday Birth of the American pianist Richard Goode.
1943, Tuesday Death of the English actor, Londoner Leslie Howard [Leslie Howard Stainer] when the British Overseas Airways plane he was on was shot down by German fighters over the Bay of Biscay.
1944, Thursday Birth of the English actor Robert Powell.
1945, Friday Birth of the American mezzo-soprano Frederica von Stade.
1946, Saturday Death of the Moravian tenor Leo Slezak.
1946, Saturday Birth of the American soprano Carol Neblett.
1946, Saturday Ion Antonescu, the Romanian Fascist Dictator was executed.
1947, Sunday Birth of the Welsh actor Jonathan Pryce.
1947, Sunday Death of the Swedish mathematician David Enskog.
1950, Thursday Birth of the American tenor Philip Creech.
1952, Sunday East Germany closed its links with West.
1958, Sunday Iceland extended its fishery limits to 12 miles.
1958, Sunday Charles de Gaulle was named premier of France and asked for six months of rule by decree.
1961, Thursday FM multiplex stereo broadcasting was tested for the first time.
1964, Monday In Copenhagen, the statue of the Little Mermaid, stolen five weeks previously, was re-erected with new head.
1965, Tuesday A three degree Kelvin primordial background radiation, a relic of the Big Bang, was detected.
1968, Saturday Death of the blind and deaf American writer Helen Keller.
1973, Friday In Athens, Premier Papadopoulos abolished the monarchy and proclaimed a republic.
1981, Monday In Peking, China published its first English language newspaper.
1985, Saturday Wiltshire Police arrested 300 members of a “Peace Convoy” which was heading for Stonehenge to hold a midsummer festival.
1988, Wednesday In Australia, the British government failed to prevent the publication of Spycatcher, by the ex-MI5 agent, Peter Wright.
1988, Wednesday In Moscow, Presidents Reagan and Gorbachev signed the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty.
1989, Thursday Death of the American mathematician Edward McShane.
1990, ThursdayDeath of the English actor, Londoner Eric Barker.
1992, Monday The E-Lamp, an electronic electrodeless 20-year light bulb was unveiled.
1994, Wednesday South Africa rejoined the Commonwealth.2nd657, Wednesday Death of Pope Eugenius I.
1581, Friday James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton and Scottish Lord High Admiral was executed for complicity in the murder Lord Darnley, husband of Mary Queen of Scots.
1624, Wednesday Birth of the Polish King John Sobieski.
1627, Saturday The Duke of Buckingham sailed from Portsmouth with a fleet to aid the French Huguenots in the defence of La Rochelle.
Monday Birth of the French aristocrat and writer, the Marquis de Sade [Comte Donatien-Alphonse-Fransois de Sade]
1793, Sunday The final overthrow of Girondins and arrest of Jacques Brissot began the Reign of Terror in the French Revolution.
1787, Saturday Birth of the Swedish chemist and discoverer of Vanadium Nils Gabriel Sefström.
1834, Monday Birth of Bohemian soprano Teresa Stolz.
1835, Tuesday Birth of the Russian music educator, pianist and conductor Nicolai Rubinstein.
1840, Tuesday Birth of the English novelist and poet Thomas Hardy.
1846, Tuesday Saint-Saens made his debut as a pianist in Paris.
1850, Sunday Birth of the English pharmacist Jesse Boot, 1st Baron Trent founder of Boot’s the Chemist.
1854, Friday Birth of the German physiologist Max Rubner.
1857, Tuesday Birth of the English composer Edward Elgar.
1858, Wednesday First sighting of the Donati Comet.
1863, Tuesday Birth of the German conductor and composer Felix Weingartner.
1873, Monday Ground was broken on San Francisco’s Clay Street for the world’s first cable-powered train system.
1882, Friday Death of the Italian nationalist Giuseppe Garibaldi.
1886, Friday Death of the Russian playwright Alexander Ostrovsky.
1895, Friday Birth of the Hungarian mathematician Tibor Radó.
1896, Tuesday First performance of Saint-Saens’ Piano Concerto No 5 at the Salle Pleye, Paris in a concert to commemorate his debut (see 1846).
1903, Tuesday Birth of the German film actor and Olympic swimmer Johnny Weissmuller.
1904, Thursday China signed the Geneva Convention.
1904, Thursday An exhibition of Matisse paintings was mounted at Gallerie Vollard in Paris.
1910, Thursday British explorers found a Pygmy tribe in the Great Snow Mountains of Dutch New Guinea.
1915, Thursday Britain began a blockade of the Asia Minor coastline.
1920, Wednesday Birth of the English actor Geoffrey Hibbert.
1922, Friday Birth of the the American geochemist Clair Cameron Patterson.
1924, Monday The U.S. Congress granted full citizenship to American Indians.
1926, Wednesday Birth of the Irish actor Milo O’Shea .
1929, Sunday Birth of the English actor Leonard Parkin.
1929, Sunday Death of the Austrian mathematician Otto Schreier.
1932, Thursday Birth of the English actor Alan Dobie.
1932, Thursday Birth of the Japanese mathematician Taira Honda.
1935, Sunday Birth of the English actor Anthony Powell.
1937, Wednesday Mrs G.B. Miller became the first woman owner to win the Derby at Epsom with her horse Midday Sun.
1939, Friday In Palestine, a Jewish terrorist bomb killed five Arabs. Four members of the British Mandate force and three Jews were killed in retaliation.
1940, Sunday In the retreat from Dunkirk, a further 26,250 men were evacuated.
1941, Monday Birth of the American film actor Stacey Keach.
1942, Tuesday Birth of the American film director Barry Levinson.
1943, Wednesday Death of the American mathematician Edward Burr Van Vleck.
1946, Sunday In a national plebiscite, the Italian people voted to establish a Republic.
1946, Sunday Birth of Danish soprano Inge Nielsen.
1947, Monday Birth of the English conductor Mark Elder.
1949, Thursday Birth of American tenor Neil Shicoff.
1954, Wednesday The first test of a Vertical Take-Off and landing (VTOL) airplane took place in the U.S.
1955, Thursday In India, a British climbing party reached the summit of Mount Kanchenjunga, the world’s third highest peak and the highest peak not yet climbed.
1955, Thursday Birth of French pianist Michel Dalberto.
1963, Sunday Death of English writer Vita Sackville-West.
1963, Sunday The UK’s Bank Holiday traffic broke all records when eight million cars took to the road.
1970, Tuesday The English Labour politician, Londoner Emanuel Shinwell was created a life peer.
1975, Monday Death of Sato Eisaku, ex-premier Japan, (Nobel (Peace)1974).
1984, Saturday Death of the Italian Baritone Tito Gobbi.
1987, Tuesday Soviet and Canadian skiers became the first to cross from one country to another via the North Pole.
1987, Tuesday Death of the Spanish guitarist Andres Segovia.
1990, Saturday Death of the Robert Noyce, co-inventor (semi-conductor)/founded Intel.
1990, Saturday Death of the English actor Rex Harrison [Reginald Carey Harrison].
1994, Thursday In the Mull of Kintyre, a helicopter crash killed 25 of Britain’s leading counter-terrorist experts.
1995, Friday In his fraud trial, Kevin Maxwell told the court that he did not think that his father, Robert Maxwell, had committed suicide.
1996, Sunday A new scientific study suggests that the ozone layer may be on the mend as levels of ozone-depleting substances in the atmosphere decline.3rd1098, Thursday The Crusaders captured Antioch.
1652, Thursday Birth of the English navigator and adventurer William Dampier.
1659, Friday Birth of the Scottish mathematician David Gregory.
1726, Friday Birth of the Scottish geologist James Hutton.
1771, Monday Birth of the English clergyman and journalist Sydney Smith.
1801, Wednesday Birth of the Bohemian-Czech conductor and composer Frantisek Skroup.
1803, Friday Birth of the Prussian piano builder William Knabe.
1804, Sunday Birth of the English economist and political reformer Richard Cobden.
1822, Monday Death of the French mineralogist and pioneer crystallographer René-Just Haüy.
1832, Sunday Birth of the French composer Charles Lecocq.
1841, Thursday Death of Nicolas Appert, the French chef who invented food preservation.
1844, Monday Birth of the Belgian mathematician Paul Mansion.
1856, Tuesday Cullen Whipple, of Providence, RI, patented the first practical screw machine for making pointed screws.
1864, Friday Birth of the American automobile manufacturer Ransom Eli Olds.
1873, Tuesday Birth of the German physician Otto Loewi (Nobel 1936).
1875, Thursday Death of the French composer Georges Bizet.
1878, Monday Birth of the American biochemist Lawrence Joseph Henderson.
1880, Thursday Alexander Graham Bell transmitted the first wireless telephone message on his newly-invented Photophone .
1887, Friday Birth of the American tenor Roland Hayes.
1899, Saturday Death of the Austrian composer Johann Strauss Fils.
1899, Saturday Birth of the American physiologist Georg von Békésy (Nobel 1961).
1903, Wednesday Death of the Austrian mathematician Leopold Gegenbauer.
1904, Friday Birth of the American tenor Jan Peerce [Jacob Pincus Perlemuth].
1906, Sunday Birth of the American entertainer Josephine Baker [Frida Josephine McDonald].
1910, Friday Birth of the English explorer and writer Wilfrid Thesiger.
1911, Saturday Birth of the American film actress Paulette Goddard [Pauline Marion Levy].
1924, Tuesday Death of the Austrian novelist Franz Kafka.
1924, Tuesday Birth of the Swedish neurobiologist Torsten Nils Wiesel (Nobel 1981).
1925, Wednesday Birth of the American film actor Tony Curtis.
1925, Wednesday Death of the French astronomer Nicolas Camille Flammarion.
1929, Monday Birth of the Swiss microbiologist Werner Arber (Nobel 1978).
1937, Thursday The Duke of Windsor married Mrs Wallis Simpson in France.
1937, Thursday Birth of the English soprano Valerie Masterson.
1942, Wednesday Birth of the English television actress Anita Harris.
1946, Monday King Umberto II left Italy as the Prime Minister Alcide de Gasperi became the provisional head of state.
1948, Friday The 200-inch (5.08 m) reflecting Hale telescope at the Palomar Mountain Observatory in California began operating.
1953, Wednesday Birth of the English soprano Lynne Dawson.
1956, Sunday Third class rail travel was abolished.
1963, Monday Death of Pope John XXIII [Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli].
1965, Thursday Ed White became the first American astronaut to walk in space.
1967, Saturday Death of the English children’s writer Arthur Ransome.
1971, Thursday Death of the German mathematician Heinz Hopf.
1977, Friday Death of the English physiologist A.V. Hill (Nobel 1922).
1977, Friday Death of the Italian film director Roberto Rossellini.
1980, Tuesday Death of the Russian mathematician Naum Akhiezer.
1982, Thursday In the Falklands War, Britain dropped leaflets on Port Stanley urging the Argentine forces to surrender.
1983, Friday In the UK, 752 arrests were made during four days of protests outside Upper Heyford U.S. Air Force base.
1985, Monday Italy abolished state religion.
1992, Wednesday Death of the English actor Robert Morley.
1995, Saturday Death of the American electronics engineer and mathematician John Eckert Jr.
1996, Monday Death of the Spanish soprano Pilar Lorengar [Lorenza Garcia].
1997, Tuesday American computer scientists announced the construction of logic gates from DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
1997, Tuesday American geneticist Huntington F Wilard constructed the first artificial human chromosome.
2001, Sunday Death of the Mexican film actor Anthony Quinn [Antonio Rudolfo Oaxaca Quinn].4th780 BCE, Friday The first total solar eclipse reliably recorded was noted by the Chinese.
1039, Monday Gruffydd ap Llewellyn, King of Gwynedd and Powys, repulsed an English attack.
1091, Wednesday Death of the Benedictine abbot Wilhelm von Hirsau, author of two treatises on music.
1520, Monday Henry VIII and Francis I met at the Field of the Cloth of Gold.
1694, Monday Birth of the French economist and physician François Quesnay.
1751, Tuesday Birth of the English lawyer and politician John Scott, later Earl of Eldon.
1754, Tuesday Birth of the Germano-Hungarian astronomer Franz Xaver von Zach.
1756, Friday Birth of the French pioneer industrial chemist Jean Antoine Claude Chaptal.
1798, Monday Death of the Italian adventurer Giovanni Casanova.
1811, Tuesday Birth of the American novelist Harriet Beecher Stowe.
1811, Tuesday First performance of Weber’s opera Abu Hassan in Munich.
1829, Thursday Birth of the Dutch composer Joseph Ascher.
1833, Tuesday Birth, in Ireland, of the Commander in chief of the British Army, Field Marshall Garnet Wolseley.
1869, Friday Death of the Dutch composer Joseph Ascher.
1872, Tuesday In New York a process for making vaseline was patented by English chemist Robert Chesebrough.
1877, Monday Birth of the German chemist Heinrich Otto Wieland (Nobel 1927).
1889, Tuesday Birth of the American seismologist Beno Gutenberg, colleague of Richter.
1896, Thursday In Detroit, he first road test of the first Ford car was delayed an hour because the car was wider than the door of the shed in which Henry Ford built it. With an ax, he ripped out the door frame.
1899, Sunday Death of the Italian mathematician Eugenio Beltrami.
1903, Thursday Birth of the Russian conductor Evgeny Mravinsky.
1907, Tuesday Death of the Norwegian pianist Agathe Backer-Grondahl.
1907, Tuesday Birth of the American actress Roslaind Russell.
1910, Saturday Birth of the Yugoslav tenor Anton Dermota.
1910, Saturday Birth of the English engineer Christopher Cockerell, who invented the hovercraft.
1913, Wednesday Birth of the English actress Gwyneth Lloyd.
1913, Wednesday English suffragette Emily Davidson, grabbed the reins of the King’s horse during the Derby and was severely injured.
1914, Thursday Sibelius conducted the first performances of his Oceanides, Pohjola’s Daughter and The Swan of Tuonela at the Litchfield County Choral festival, Norfolk, Connecticut.
1917, Monday Birth of the American baritone Robert Merrill [Morris Miller].
1920, Friday Birth of the Italian contralto Fedora Barbieri.
1925, Thursday Birth of the American film actor Dennis Weaver.
1929, Tuesday George Eastman demonstrated the first technicolor movie in Rochester, NY.
1937, Friday The first shopping carts (supermarket trollies) were introduced at the Humpty Dumpty supermarket in Oklahoma City.
1938, Saturday Sigmund Freud fled Austria for London.
1946, Tuesday Death of the Finnish mathematician Ernst Lindelöf.
1966, Saturday Birth of the Italian mezzo-soprano Cecilia Bartoli.
1967, Sunday Death of the American physicist Lloyd Viel Berkner.
1970, Thursday Tonga gained independence from Britain.
1973, Monday Death of the French mathematician Maurice Fréchet.
1975, Wednesday The discovery of the oldest animal fossils in the U.S., large narrow marine worms dating back some 620 million years, was reported in North Carolina.
1984, Monday The cloning of DNA sequences from the quagga was reported.
1996, Tuesday The European Space Agency’s Ariane 5 rocket had to be blown up one minute after liftoff because it had veered off course. The payload had not been insured.5th1455, Thursday The French poet François Villon fatally wounded a priest in a street brawl and was later banished from Paris.
1594, Wednesday Birth of the French painter Nicolas Poussin.
1656, Thursday Birth of the French botanist Joseph Pitton de Tournefort.
1722, Tuesday Death of the German composer Johann Kuhnau.
1723, Wednesday Birth of the Scottish economist Adam Smith.
1757, Sunday Birth of the French philosopher Pierre-Jean-Georges Cabanis.
1760, Thursday Birth of the French chemist Johann Gadolin.
1769, Monday Birth of the English mineralogist and traveler Edward Daniel Clarke.
1783, Saturday The first hot-air balloon was flown for ten minutes by the French brothers Joseph and Jacques Montgolfier at their home town of Annonay, France.
1814, Sunday Birth of the French mathematician Pierre Wantzel.
1819, Saturday Birth of the English astronomer and mathematician John Couch Adams.
1826, Monday Birth of the Swedish pianist and composer Ivar Hallstrom.
1862, Thursday Birth of the Swedish ophthalmologist Allvar Gullstrand (Nobel 1911).
1863, Friday Birth of the English composer Sir Arthur Somervell.
1879, Thursday Birth of the Swedish conductor, composer and pianist Adolf Wiklund.
1880, Saturday Birth of William Cosgrave, the first Prime Minister of the Irish Free state.
1883, Tuesday Birth of the English economist John Maynard Keynes.
1898, Saturday Birth of the Spanish playwright and poet Federico Garca Lorca.
1900, Tuesday Birth of the Hungarian physicist and inventor of Holography, Dennis Gabor (Nobel 1971).
1916, Monday Death of the Irish soldier, Statesman and WWI icon Lord Kitchener when HMS Hampshire sank off the Orkneys.
1919, Wednesday Birth of the Japanese conductor Akeo Watanabe.
1932, Sunday Birth of the Irish novelist Christy Brown.
1936, Friday Birth of the English mezzo-soprano Anne Reynolds.
1939, Monday Birth of the Welsh writer Ken Follett.
1939, Monday Birth of the English novelist Margaret Drabble.
1940, Wednesday Death of the English geophysicist Augustus Love.
1941, Thursday Birth of the Argentinian pianist Martha Argerich.
1947, Thursday Birth of the English playwright David Hare.
1968, Wednesday Assassination of the American Senator Robert Kennedy.
1975, Thursday The Suez Canal was reopened after an eight year closure.
1977, Sunday The first personal computer, the Apple II, went on sale.
1986, Thursday Death of the German mathematician Helmut Grunsky.
1997, Thursday American astronomers discovered a new type of object within the solar system (a ‘worldlet’).6th1436, Wednesday Birth of the German natural philosopher Johann Regiomontanus.
1519, Monday Birth of the Italian natural philosopher and pioneer botanist Andrea Cesalpino.
1520, Wednesday Henry VIII and Francis I signed a treaty at the Field of the Cloth of Gold confirming the marriage contract of Mary Tudor and the Dauphin and ending French interference in Scotland.
1533, Friday Death of the Italian poet Ludovico Ariosto.
1599, Wednesday Birth of the Spanish painter Diego y Velasquez,.
1606, Friday Birth of the French playwright Pierre Corneille.
1625, Sunday Birth of the Italian sculptor Domenico Guidi.
1683, Wednesday The general public were admitted for the first time at the first public museum, the Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology, was opened by Elias Ashmole, Oxford.
1727, Tuesday During a performance of Bononcini’s Astianatte in the presence of the Princess of Wales, the rival Prima Donnas, Faustina and Cuzzoni, came to blows on stage. Their respective supporters joined in.
1757, Monday Birth of the Austrian-French pianist and piano manufacturer and publisher of sheet music, Ignaz Pleyel.
1799, Thursday Birth of the Russian writer Aleksandr Pushkin.
1799, Thursday In Paris, the first definitive prototype metre bars and kilograms were constructed in platinum.
1799, Thursday Birth of the Russian conductor and Imperial Choir director, Alexis Lvov.
1807, Saturday Birth of the Belgian cellist and composer Adrien-Francois Servais.
1850, Thursday Levi Strauss made his first denim jeans.
1850, Thursday Birth of the German physicist Ferdinand Braun (Nobel 1909).
1857, Saturday Birth of the Russian mathematician Aleksandr Lyapunov.
1858, Sunday Birth of the German pianist and conductor Bruno Oscar Klien.
1862, Friday Birth of the English poet Henry Newbolt.
1868, Saturday Birth of the English Antarctic explorer Robert Falcon Scott.
1875, Sunday Birth of the German novelist Thomas Mann.
1892, Monday Birth of the American inventor of the Yo-Yo Donald F. Duncan.
1898, Monday Birth of the Irish Prima Ballerina Dame Ninette de Valois.
1902, Friday Professor James Dewar exhibited air in the solid state and a jet of liquid air raising above it to about 6-ft., with beautiful effects, before the Prince and Princess of Wales.
1903, Saturday Birth of the Armenian composer Aram Khachaturian.
1906, Wednesday Birth of the German mathematician Max Zorn.
1909, Sunday Birth, in Moscow, of Sir Isaiah Berlin, the British philosopher and educator.
1924, Friday First performance of Mahler’s unfinished Tenth Symphony with Zemlinsky conducting in Prague.
1925, Saturday First performance of Prokofiev’s Second Symphony at a Koussevitsky concert, in Paris.
1926, Sunday Birth of the German conductor Klaus Tennstedt.
1928, Wednesday First performance of Richard Strauss’ opera Agyptische Helena in Dresden.
1928, Wednesday Death of the Italian mathematician Luigi Bianchi.
1934, Wednesday Birth of the French pianist and conductor Philippe Entremont.
1941, Friday Death of the American auto pioneer Louis Chevrolet.
1942, Saturday Birth of the English countertenor Paul Esswood.
1943, Sunday Death of the Italian mathematician Guido Fubini.
1944, Tuesday The Allied D-Day invasion of Normandy got underway.
1948, Sunday Death of the French photography and cinema pioneer Louis Lumiere.
1954, Sunday The Pope, Pius XII, opened the eight nation television network called Eurovision.
1956, Wednesday Birth of the Swedish tennis player Björn Borg, (Wimbledon 1976-1980).
1956, Wednesday Death of the American archaeologist Hiram Bingham.
1961, Tuesday Death of the Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung.
1966, Monday The American spacecraft, Gemini 9, completed 45 orbits of the Earth.
1967, Tuesday President Nasser closed the Suez Canal, alleging that American and British forces were aiding Israel.
1972, Tuesday Death of the American mathematician Adrian Albert.
1977, Monday Death of the Polish mathematician Stefan Bergman.
1980, Friday At the Old Bailey, two Malaysians who headed a multimillion pound drug smuggling ring were jailed for 14 years.
1989, Tuesday Death of the Iranian leader Ayatollah Khomeini.7th1329, Wednesday Death of the Robert I ‘the Bruce’, king of Scotland.
1705, Thursday Francis Flood (Member for Callan) was expelled from the Irish Parliament on the following grounds: As an Army Major, he unlawfully billeted troops on tenants of Agmondisham Cuffe MP; made false enlistment returns; kept to himself money granted to others by the Grand Jury and enforced illegal methods of recruitment.
1761, Sunday Birth of the Scottish engineer John Rennie.
1799, Friday Birth of the Russian novelist, playwright, and poet Aleksandr Pushkin.
1811, Friday Birth of the Scottish obstetrician James Young Simpson, who pioneered the use of anaesthetics.
1825, Tuesday Birth of the English novelist R D Blackmore.
1826, Wednesday Death of the German physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer.
1843, Wednesday Death of the French astronomer Alexis Bouvard.
1845, Saturday Birth of the Hungarian violinist and teacher Leopold Auer.
1847, Monday Death of the German mathematician Adolph Göpel.
1848, Wednesday Birth of the French painter Paul Gauguin.
1862, Saturday Birth of the German physicist Philipp Lenard (Nobel 1905).
1868, Sunday Birth of the Irish physicist Sir John Sealy Edward Townsend.
1877, Thursday Birth of the English chemist Charles Glover Barkla (Nobel 1917).
1896, Sunday Birth of the German palaeontologist Otto Heinrich Schindewolf.
1896, Sunday Birth of the American chemist Robert Sanderson Mulliken (Nobel 1966).
1897, Monday Birth of the Hungarian conductor George Szell.
1899, Wednesday Birth of the Irish novelist and short story writer Elizabeth Bowen.
1906, Thursday In Glasgow, the world’s then largest and fastest passenger liner, Cunard’s Lusitania, was launched.
1907, Friday Death of the English zoologist Alfred Newton.
1909, Monday Birth of the American actress Jessica Tandy.
1910, Tuesday Birth of the Italian painter Pietro Annigoni.
1914, Sunday The first vessel, the Alliance, passed through the Panama Canal.
1921, Tuesday Birth of the German soprano Ilse Wolf.
1927, Monday First performance of Prokofiev’s ballet Pas d’Acier, by the Ballet Russe in Paris.
1928, Wednesday Birth of the American film director James Ivory.
1929, Thursday The Vatican became a sovereign state as the Lateran Treaty came into effect.
1937, Monday Death of the English painter David Cox.
1937, Monday Birth of the Estonian conductor Neeme Jarvi.
1937, Monday Death of the American film actress Jean Harlow.
1940, Friday Birth of the Welsh entertainer Tom Jones.
1941, Saturday Birth of the Bolivian-American violinist Jaime Laredo.
1952, Saturday Birth of the Irish actor Liam Neeson.
1963, Friday Birth of the French tenor Roberto Alagna.
1967, Wednesday Birth of the Finnish pianist Olli Mustonen.
1967, Wednesday Death of the American writer Dorothy Parker.
1973, Thursday An Icelandic coastguard vessel rammed a British warship in an escalation of the ‘Cod War’.
1978, Wednesday Death of the English chemist Ronald George Wreyford Norrish (Nobel 1967).
1980, Saturday Death of the American novelist Henry Miller.
1990, Thursday Hungary announced its plans to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact.