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Roman Emperors

Roman Emperors
Posted on Jun 17, 2002 – 07:17 AM by Bill McCann

A short reference list of the Emperors of Rome from the time of Augustus to the end of the Roman Province of Britannia. Their names are given here in the forms under which the average reader is likely to encounter them in modern English historiography. No attempt has been made to distinguish between legitimate Emperors and usurpers. Minor or transient usurpers have been excluded altogether.


This is a list of Roman emperors from Augustus to Justinian. There are many instances where more than one Emperor is listed for an individual year or through overlapping time spans. Except for the exceptional year of 69 AD, this does not necessarily indicate assassination, deposition, usurpation or other skulduggery. The Empire was vast, quite beyond the administrative powers of a single man. Power-sharing of was quite common, particularly with a designated successor. This was also a useful way to keep possible rivals on-side and thereby maintain political stability at the centre.There is an excellent study of Roman Britain by Peter Salway in the Oxford History of England series.
Julio-Claudians
Augustus (Octavian) 27 BC-AD 14
Tiberius 14 – 37
Gaius (Caligula) 37 – 41
Claudius 41 – 54
Nero 54 – 68
Galba 68 – 69
Otho 69
Vitellius 69 – 70
Flavians
Vespasian 69 – 79
Titus 79 – 81
Domitian 81 – 96
Nerva 96 – 98
Trajan 98 – 117
Hadrian 117 – 138
Antonines
Antoninus pius 138 – 161
Marcus Aurelius 161 – 180
Lucius Verus 161 – 169
Commodus 180 – 192
Pertinax 193
Didius Julianus 193
House of Severus & its rivals
Septimius Severus 193 – 211
Clodius Albinus 193 – 197
Pescennius Niger 193 – 194
Caracalla 211 – 217
Geta 211 – 212
Macrinus 217 – 218
Elagabalus 218 – 222
Severus Alexander 222 – 235
Maximinus (‘Thrax’) 235 – 238
Pupienus 238
Balbinus 238
Gordian I 238
Gordian II 238
Gordian III 238 – 244
Philip I (‘The Arab’) 244 – 249
Philip II 244 – 249
Uranius 248 – 253
Pacatianus 248
Jotapianus 249
Decius 249 – 251
Herennius Etruscus 250 – 251
Hostilianus 250 – 251
Gallus 251 – 253
Volusianus 251 – 253
Aemilianus 253
Valerian 253 – 260
Galienus 253 – 268
Macrianus 260
Regalianus 261
Aureolus 267 – 268
Laelianus 268
Marius 268
Gallic emperors
Postumus 260 – 269
Victorinus 269 – 271
Tetricus 271 – 273
Claudius II (‘Gothicus) 268 – 270
Quintillus 270
Aurelian 270 – 275
Domitian II (?)
Vaballathus 270 – 271
Tacitus 275 – 276
Florianus 276
Probus 276 – 282
Saturninus 280
Carus 282 – 283
Julianus 283
Carinus 283 – 285
Numerian 283 284
The Tetrarchy
Diocletian 284 – 305
Maximian 286 – 305
Constantius I (Chlorus) 305 – 306 (Caesar 293 – 305)
Galerius 305 – 311 (Caesar 293 – 305)
Carausius 287 – 293
Allectus 293 – 296
Achilles 296
Flavius Severus 306 – 307
Maximin Daia 310 – 313
Maxentius 307 – 312
Alexander 308 – 311
Licinius 308 – 324
House of Constantine and its rivals
Constantine I (‘The Great’) 306 – 337
Valens 314
Martinianus 323
Constantine II 337 – 340
Constans 337 – 350
Constantius II 337 – 361
Nepotianus 350
Vetriano 350
Magnentius 350 – 353
Claudius Silvanus 355
Julian (‘The Apostate’) 360 – 363 (Caesar 355 – 360)
Jovian 363 – 364
House of Valentinian and its rivals
Valentinian I 364 – 375
Valens 364 – 378
Gratian 375 – 383
Procopius 365 – 366
Valentinian II 375 – 392
Magnus Maximus 383 – 388
Flavius Victor 384 – 388
Eugenius 392 – 394
House of Theodosius and its rivals
Theodosius I (‘The Great’) 379 – 395
Western emperors
Honorius 395 – 423
Marcus 406
Gratian 407
Constantine III 407 – 411
Maximus 409 – 411
Jovinus 411 – 412
Constantius III (Flavius Constantius) 421
John (Johannes) 423 – 425
Valentinian III 425 – 455
Petronius Maximus 455
Avitus 455 – 456
Majorian 457 – 461
Libius Severus 461 – 465
Anthemius 467 – 472
Olybrius 472
Glycerius 473
Julius Nepos 473 – 480
Romulus (‘Augustulus’) 475 – 476
Eastern emperors
Arcadius 395 – 408
Theodosius II 408 – 450
Marcian 450 – 457
Leo 457 – 474
Leo II 474
Zeno 474 – 491
Anastasius 491 – 518
House of Justin
Justin I 518- 527
Justinian 527 – 565