This page provides daily updates on past events and anniversaries during the First week of April. The events included are those that either happened in London or had an effect, one way or another, on the lives of Londoners.
Daily updates on Events during the First week
Below are the events and anniversaries for this week both about London and Londoners and Outside London.
The archive for these pages has been arranged in a series of monthly Digests. To speed up navigation, these have been further divided into four weekly instalments. These pages are all comprehensively interlinked.
More details behind many of the London Headlines can be found at the This Day in London page. This takes the form of a Gazette whose reporters include the likes of Samuel Pepys and John Evelyn. If you want to explore the daily life of Londoners through the ages, that is the place to head for. There are links there to the complete monthly editions of the Gazette
The Outside London section offers daily updates on a range of political, cultural, scientific and religious events and anniversaries in History and which had, in one way or another, an effect on London Life.
Each Section has its own background page which provides additional and in-depth information about many of the events and people in the daily listings. They are intended to both amuse and inform and can be found at Gazette Briefings and Historical Anecdotes .
Links to the anniversaries and events in the other weeks of the month are given in the following table whilst links to the other months of the year can be found at the bottom of the page.
1204,Thursday, Death of Eleanor of Aquitaine queen of England and France.
1578,Tuesday, Birth of the English physician William Harvey.
1582,Sunday, Birth of the English composer Thomas Simpson.
1747,Wednesday, First performance of Handel's oratorio Judas Maccabeus at Covent Garden in London.
1841,Thursday, The Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, originally created from the 9 acres of Princess Augusta's botanic garden was opened to the public.
1900,Sunday, Death of the British biologist and critic of Darwin Saint George Jackson Mivart.
1908,Wednesday, The British Territorial Army was founded.
1918,Monday, The Royal Air Force was formed when the Royal Naval Air Service and the Royal Flying Corps were merged.
1947,Wednesday, Britain's compulsory school-leaving age was raised to 15.
1957,Monday, Birth of the English cricketer David Gower.
1965,Thursday, The Greater London Council was created from the City of London and 32 boroughs.
1971,Thursday, Death of the English crystallographer Dame Kathleen Lonsdale. She was the first woman to be elected (1945) to the Royal Society.
1973,Sunday, In Britain Value Added Tax (VAT) replaced Purchase Tax and Selective Employment Tax.
1974,Monday, Britain re-organised its local government system, changing many county names.
1993,Thursday, Death of the South-African born British zoologist Solly Zuckerman.
1996,Monday, Douglas Hogg the minister of agriculture fisheries and food announced a programme to destroy all cattle older than 30 months.
1720, Saturday, The Royal Academy of Music opened in London with performance of Porta's Numitore.
1727, Friday, Nicholas Hawksmoor's church St Mary Woolnoth in Lombard Street was consecrated.
1850, Tuesday, A meeting at Portman Square established the London Dispensary Society which worked to increase the number of dispensaries for the poor.
1865, Sunday, Death of the British politician Richard Cobden.
1873, Wednesday, The first lavatories were installed on a Train, in Britain.
1877, Monday, The first human cannonballact appeared, in London. See
1889, Sunday, Birth of the English music writer Sir Neville Cardus.
1902, Wednesday, Edward German's opera Merrie England first premiered at the Savoy Theatre.
1914, Thursday, The Geffrye Museum of furniture in Kingsland Road was opened. It is housed in what was originally a set of 14 almshouses and chapel erected in 1715 by the Ironmonger's Company and was saved from demolition by the London County Council.
1914, Thursday, Birth of the English actor Alec Guinness.
1928, Monday, Birth of the English soprano April Cantelo.
1932, Saturday, The brilliant young scholar and Tory MP Edward Marjoribanks, stepson of Lord Hailsham, shot himself.
1935, Tuesday, Sir Watson-Watt was granted a patent for the RADAR.
1939, Sunday, Birth of the English actress Penelope Keith.
1949, Saturday, Advertising lights went on in London after a ten-year restriction.
1962, Monday, The first push-button-controlled Panda crossings were introduced in London.
1966, Saturday, Death of the English novelist C S Forester.
1974, Tuesday, Death of the English soprano Dorothy Moulton, Lady Mayer.
1367, Saturday, Birth of the first Lancastrian king of England, Henry IV.
1593, Tuesday, Birth of the English metaphysical poet George Herbert.
1721, Monday, Robert Walpole became the first prime minister of Britain.
1862, Thursday, Death of the English explorer James Clark Ross.
1893, Monday, Birth of the English actor Leslie Howard.
1896, Friday, Birth of the English geologist Ralph A. Bagnold.
1900, Sunday, Birth of the English mathematician Albert Ingham.
1901, Monday, Death of the British Impresario Richard D'Oyly Carte founder of the Savoy Theatre and Hotel and manager of the Gilbert & Sullivan.
1921, Thursday, Coal rationing began.
1925, Friday, Birth of the English politician Tony Benn.
1947, Thursday, The British private medical company BUPA was founded.
1980, Thursday, Death of the British geophysicist Sir Edward (Crisp) Bullard.
1986, Thursday, Death of the British tenor Peter Pears.
1999, Saturday, Death of the British composer Lionel Bart.
1581, Tuesday, Elizabeth I dined on board the Golden Hind at Deptford and knighted Francis Drake for his achievement in circumnavigating the globe.
1617, Friday, Death of the Scottish mathematician John Napier who invented logarithms.
1648, Tuesday, Birth of the Dutch-English woodcarver and sculptor Grinling Gibbons.
1739, Wednesday, First performance of Handel's oratorio Israel in Egypt in London.
1774, Monday, Death of the Irish playwright Oliver Goldsmith.
1823, Friday, Birth of the German-British metallurgist and inventor William Siemens.
1835, Saturday, Birth of the English neurologist John Hughlings Jackson.
1850, Thursday, Miss Frances Buss opened her North London Collegiate School for Ladies at 46 Camden Street. It was to cater for the girls from Middle class families who could neither afford expensive schooling nor take advantage of the Charity Schools.
1896, Saturday, The new National Portrait Gallery building at Trafalgar Square, financed by William Alexander of Andover and designed by Ewan Christian, was opened
1919, Friday, Death of the English physicist and chemist Sir William Crookes.
1923, Wednesday, Death of the English mathematician John Venn.
1923, Wednesday, The BBC began broadcasting for schools.
1925, Saturday, Death of the English historian of mathematics Walter Rouse Ball.
1927, Monday, The trades disputes bill was introduced, outlawing sympathy strikes and compulsory political levies.
1935, Thursday, Birth of the English Playwright Trevor Griffiths.
1957, Thursday, Birth of the English organist Thomas Trotter.
1958, Friday, Members of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) held the first Aldermaston March, walking from Hyde Park Corner London to the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment at Aldermaston Berkshire.
1960, Monday, Birth of the English soprano Jane Eaglin.
1982, Sunday, The British government proposed new political institutions in Northern Ireland in the White Paper 'A framework for Devolution'.
1986, Friday, Rupert Murdoch offered his Gray's Inn Road plant to the print unions if they ended the Wapping dispute and allowed the Times to be printed.
1588, Thursday, Birth of the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes.
1614, Tuesday, The Addled Parliament - so called because it passed no Bills - began sitting.
1742, Monday, The sumptuous pleasure gardens at Ranelagh in Chelsea opened for business.
1753, Thursday, An Act to establish the British Museum was passed in Parliament.
1821, Thursday, The new church of St Paul at Shadwell, designed by John Walters, was consecrated.
1827, Thursday, Birth of the English surgeon Sir Joseph Lister.
1837, Wednesday, Birth of the British poet Algernon Charles Swinburne.
1866, Thursday, Death of the English physician Thomas Hodgkin.
1884, Saturday, Death of the English cricketer John Wisden compiler of the almanacs named after him.
1909, Monday, The Aerial League of the British Empire, to promote British supremacy in the air was formed.
1916, Wednesday, The Military Medal was introduced as a decoration.
1923, Thursday, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle suggested the possibility that avenging spirits, angry at the disturbance of Tutankhamen's tomb, caused the death of Lord Carnarvon.
1928, Thursday, Birth of the English Actor Michael Bryant.
1946, Friday, Birth of the British actress Jane Asher.
1946, Friday, Birth of the English ballerina Miss Jennifer Penney.
1955, Tuesday, Prime minister Winston Churchill resigned.
1959, Sunday, Birth of the English pianist Julius Drake.
1964, Sunday, Automatic driver-less trains began operating on parts of the London Underground.
1974, Friday, Death of the English politician Richard Crossman.
1974, Friday, Death of the English soprano Jennifer Vyvyan.
1976, Monday, Harold Wilson who had suddenly resigned as prime minister was succeeded by James Callaghan.
1984, Thursday, BBC 1 went off the air, blacked out by an industrial dispute.
1991, Friday, The European Bank of Reconstruction and Development to assist economic development in East European and the former USSR opened in London.
1998, Sunday, Death of the English physicist Sir Charles Frank.
1196, Saturday, William FitzOsbert who had led a popular revolt against the taxes which were introduced to raise the ransom for Richard I was executed at Smithfield.
1199, Tuesday, Death of Richard I and the accession of John
1580, Wednesday, An earthquake damaged several London churches including the old St Paul's Cathedral. It also resulted in the only known fatality in a London earthquake was the apprentice cobbler Thomas Grey was hit by masonry falling from Christ's Hospital in Newgate Street.
1590, Monday, Death of the English politician Francis Walsingham.
1759, Friday, Handel became ill at performance of Messiah in London.
1803, Wednesday, Death of the English diplomat and archaeologist Sir William Hamilton.
1847, Tuesday, Conversion of the Covent Garden Theatre to an Opera House, it opened with Rossini's Semiramide .
1900, Friday, Birth of the English mathematician John Burkill.
1906, Friday, Birth of the English poet John Betjeman.
1912, Saturday, The National Conference of Miners voted by four to one to return to work.
1913, Sunday, Suffragettes increased their militant activities by cutting telephone lines and damaging post boxes.
1921, Thursday, Striking Miners refused to return to work in advance of national negotiations.
1923, Friday, Private collectors inundated the British Museum with Egyptian antiquities, which they feared might carry a curse similar to that believed to be the cause of Lord Carnarvon's death.
1931, Monday, Birth of the English soprano Joan Carlyle.
1938, Wednesday, Birth of the English magician and entertainer Paul Daniels.
1944, Thursday, The income tax system 'Pay As You Earn', devised by Cornelius Gregg, was introduced.
1944, Thursday, Birth of the English soprano Felicity Palmer.
1951, Friday, Ralph Vaughan Williams' opera The Pilgrim's Progress premiered at Covent Garden, London.
1955, Wednesday, Anthony Eden became prime minister.
1982, Tuesday, The UK banned all Argentinian imports after the invasion of the Falklands.
1997, Sunday, The BBC broadcaster Martin Bell announced that he would stand in the forthcoming general election against Conservative MP Neil Hamilton, accused of accepting cash in return for asking questions in Parliament.
1726, Thursday, Birth of the English music historian, organist and composer Charles Burney.
1770, Saturday, Birth of the English poet William Wordsworth.
1779, Wednesday, Martha Ray, the mistress of the 4th earl of Sandwich was shot by her spurned suitor, the Reverend James Hackman, as she left the Covent Garden theatre. He failed to kill himself and was hanged 12 days later at Tyburn.
1853, Thursday, Chloroform was used as an anaesthetic on Queen Victoria during the birth of her eighth child Prince Leopold.
1869, Wednesday, The Buxton Drinking Fountain, designed by Samuel Sanders Teulon, was unveiled at Great George Street. It now stands in the riverside gardens south of the Houses of Parliament.
1911, Friday, Birth of the English anthropologist Kenneth (Page) Oakley.
1914, Tuesday, The House of Commons carried an Irish home rule bill by majority of 80.
1928, Saturday, "Hysterical women" were blamed for the Prince of Wales' recent riding falls as they crowd around the jumps and frighten the horses.
1930, Monday, The Automobile Association issued its one millionth badge.
1933, Friday, Death of the English mathematician Raymond Paley.
1939, Friday, Birth of the English television presenter David Frost.
1958, Monday, The Church of England gave its moral backing to family planning.
1968, Sunday, Death of the English racing driver Jim Clark.
1986, Monday, Sinclair computers, who produced the popular 'Spectrum', were sold to Amstrad.
1998, Tuesday, The American investment company Blackstone announced its takeover of the Savoy and Claridge's hotels at a cost of £520 million.
1866,Sunday, Birth of the Italian composer Ferruccio Busoni.
1868,Wednesday, Birth of the French playwright Edmond Rostand author of Cyrano de Bergerac.
1873,Tuesday, Birth of the Russian composer Sergei Rachmaninov.
1889,Monday, The first dishwasher, invented by Josephine cochrane, went on the market in Chicago.
1901,Monday, Death of the French chemist François-Marie Raoult.
1948,Thursday, Alpher, Bethe and Gamow explained the hot Big Bang.
1960,Friday, The first weather satellite, TIROS 1, was launched from Cape Canaveral.
1990,Sunday, In Britain 1,000 inmates rioted in Strangeways Prison Manchester taking over large parts of the compound.
1618, Thursday, Birth of the Italian physicist Francesco Maria Grimaldi.
1752, Thursday, Birth of the Welsh composer Edward Jones.
1801, Thursday, The British and Danish fleets met in the Battle of Copenhagen during which Nelson put his telescope to his blind eye and ignored Admiral Parker's signal to stop fighting. The British won.
1805, Tuesday, Birth of the Danish author Hans Christian Andersen.
1827, Monday, Lead pencils were first manufactured by Joseph Dixon.
1840, Thursday, Birth of the French novelist Emile Zola.
1912, Tuesday, Miss Trehawke Davis, flying with Gustave Hamel, becomes first woman to cross English Channel in dirigible.
1925, Thursday, Birth of the British historical novelist George MacDonald Fraser.
1946, Tuesday, The Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst Berkshire was founded.
1946, Tuesday, Birth of the English impresario Raymond Gubbay.
1982, Friday, Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands.
1984, Monday, An earthquake measuring 5.4 on the Richter scale hit North Wales.
1472, Friday, Death of the Italian mathematician Leone Alberti.
1866, Tuesday, A hat shaping machine was patented by Rudolph Eickemeyer and G. Osterheld.
1897, Saturday, Death of the German composer Johannes Brahms.
1987, Friday, At an auction in Geneva of jewellery belonging to the late Duchess of Windsor raised over £31 million.
1991, Wednesday, Death of the English novelist Graham Greene.
1541, Monday, The Spanish Jesuit Ignatius de Loyola became the order's first superior-general.
1688, Wednesday, Birth of the French astronomer Joseph-Nicolas Delisle.
1871, Tuesday, The Mrs. Potts Sad Iron was patented.
1900, Wednesday, An Anarchist fired two shots at the Prince of Wales, who was in Belgium for King Christian's birthday.
1931, Saturday, Death of the French tyre manufacturer André Michelin.
1934, Wednesday, 'Cat's-eye' reflective studs were first used on roads near Bradford Yorkshire.
1949, Monday, The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed in Washington DC.
1983, Monday, The second space shuttle, 'Challenger' was launched from Cape Canaveral.
1993, Sunday, Death of the American architect who invented Scrabble, Alfred Mosher Butts.
1622, Thursday, Birth of the Italian mathematician Vincenzo Viviani.
1678, Thursday, Death of the French mathematician Claude Hardy.
1684, Saturday, Death of the Irish mathematician William Brouncker.
1923, Thursday, Death of the British Egyptologist George Herbert Earl of Carnarvon.
1929, Friday, Birth of the South African-British Actor Nigel Hawthorne.
1982, Monday, A British Naval Task Force left for the Falkland Islands.
648 BCE, Friday, The earliest total solar eclipse chronicled by the Greeks was observed.
1483, Sunday, Birth of the Italian painter Raphael.
1528, Monday, Death of the German painter Albrecht Dürer.
1801, Monday, Birth of the Welsh mineralogist William Hallowes Miller.
1869, Tuesday, Celluloid was the first plastic to be patented.
1869, Tuesday, The modern Roller skate was patented.
1912, Saturday, The electric starter first appeared in motor cars.
1928, Friday, Birth of the American biologist James Watson (Nobel 1952).
1929, Saturday, Birth of the American conductor André Previn.
1938, Wednesday, Teflon was accidentally discovered.
1961, Thursday, Death of the Belgian bacteriologist Jules Bordet (Nobel 1919).
1965, Tuesday, Early Bird, the first commercial communications satellite was launched by the USA.
1971, Tuesday, Death of the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky.
1973, Friday, The spacecraft Pioneer 11 was launched to the planets Jupiter & Saturn.
1983, Wednesday, Ian Smith, the ex prime minister of Rhodesia, was granted a British passport.
1992, Monday, Death of the American scientist Isaac Asimov.
1614, Thursday, Death of the Greek-born Spanish painter El Greco.
1739, Saturday, The highwayman Dick Turpin was executed at his home town of York.
1792, Saturday, French composer Rouget de Lisle completed La Marseillaise.
1795, Tuesday, France adopted by law, the metre as the unit of length and thus established the Metric System.
1815, Friday, The effects of a massive volcanic eruption of Mount Tombora, on the Sumbawa island of Indonesia were felt worldwide.
1827, Saturday, The first matches were sold in Stockton, England.
1891, Tuesday, Death of the American showman Phineas T Barnum. See The First Circus.
1948, Wednesday, The World Health Organization (WHO) was established.