This page provides daily updates on past events and anniversaries during the First week of October. The events included are those that either happened in London or had an effect, one way or another, on the lives of Londoners.
Daily updates on Events during the First week
Below are the events and anniversaries for this week both about London and Londoners and Outside London.
The archive for these pages has been arranged in a series of monthly Digests. To speed up navigation, these have been further divided into four weekly instalments. These pages are all comprehensively interlinked.
The Outside London section offers daily updates on a range of political, cultural, scientific and religious events and anniversaries in History and which had, in one way or another, an effect on London Life.
Each Section has its own background page which provides additional and in-depth information about many of the events and people in the daily listings. They are intended to both amuse and inform and can be found at Gazette Briefings and Historical Anecdotes .
Links to the anniversaries and events in the other weeks of the month are given in the following table whilst links to the other months of the year can be found at the bottom of the page.
1163, Tuesday October 1, The Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas a Becket refused the demand of Henry II that clergy accused of crimes should be tried in the in secular courts and not the more lenient ecclesiastical courts.
1207, Monday October 1, Birth of Henry III.
1361, Friday October 1, The King's Great Wardrobe where the royal regalia robes etc. were made and stored was moved from Lombard Street to the mansion of Sir John Beauchamp on what is now Blackfriars Lane. By the time it was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666 more than 800 people were employed in it.
1708, Friday October 1, Death of the British composer John Blow.
1819, Friday October 1 , The Claremont chapel on Pentonville Road was opened for the use of local Congregationalists. It is now occupied by the Crafts Council.
1843, Sunday October 1, The News of the World newspaper founded by John Browne Bell went on sale at 3d. Newsagents at first refused to handle it at such a low price.
1860, Monday October1 , The first part of Victoria Station serving the London Brighton and South Coast Railway was opened.
1868, Thursday October 1 , The Midland Railway which was a major transporter of coal and beer opened its new London Terminus at St Pancras.
1873, Wednesday October 1, Death of the English painter Edwin Landseer.
1935, Tuesday October 1, Birth of the English actress and singer Julie Andrews.
1938, Saturday October 1, Picture Post was launched by Edward Hulton. It ceased publication in 1957.
1972, Sunday October 1, Death of the English anthropologist Louis Leakey.
1836, Sunday October 2, Charles Darwin returned from his five-year survey of South American waters aboard the HMS Beagle.
1904, Sunday October 2, Birth of the English novelist Graham Greene.
1907, Wednesday October 2 , The first set of houses in Hampstead Garden Suburb was opened by the Lord Mayor. The development of the suburb was prompted by the extension of the underground system in June.
1909, Saturday October 9, The first rugby football match was played at Twickenham between Harlequins the tenants and Richmond. The first try was scored by John Birkett of Harlequins who went on to beat Richmond 14-10.
1958, Thursday October 2, Death of the Scottish birth-control campaigner Marie Stopes.
1983, Sunday October 2, Neil Kinnock was elected leader of the Labour Party.
1987, Friday October 2, Death of the British immunologist Peter Medawar.
1997, Thursday October 2, UK scientists showed that the new variant form of the brain-wasting Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is the same disease as BSE or 'mad-cow disease' in cows.
1518, Sunday October 3, Henry VIII in procession rode out to St Paul's Cathedral to celebrate a pre-marriage ceremony which promised the two-year old Princess Mary to the even younger Dauphin of France.
1811, Thursday October 3, The first women's county cricket match began at Newington between Hampshire and Surrey.
1888, Wednesday October 3, Gilbert and Sullivan's Yeomen of the Guard was performed for the first time at the Savoy Theatre.
1896, Saturday October 3, Death of the English designer socialist and poet William Morris.
1911, Tuesday October 3, Birth of the English actor Michael Hordern.
1956, Wednesday October 3, The Bolshoi Ballet performed in Britain at Covent Garden for the first time.
1967, Tuesday October 3, Death of the British conductor Malcolm Sargent.
1997, Friday October 3, Death of the British historian A(lfred) L(eslie) Rowse.
1821, Thursday October 4, Death of the Scottish civil engineer John Rennie. He designed the London Bridge which opened in 1831 and was replaced by the present structure in 1967-72. Rennie's bridge now stands at lake havasu City, Arizona.
1911, Wednesday October 4, Britain's first public escalator was switched on at Earl's Court underground station.
1931, Sunday October 4, Birth of the British designer Terence Conran.
1948, Monday October 4, Death of the pioneer aviator Arthur Whitten Brown.
1958, Saturday October 4, BOAC (now British Airways) began operating the first transatlantic passenger jet service.
1518, Tuesday October 5, At Greenwich the marriage of the two-year old Princess Mary to the Dauphin of France was solemnized.
1694, Friday October 5, John Evelyn went to see the newly erected obelisk at Seven Dials in St Giles. The original obelisk was removed in 1733 to Weybridge where it can still be seen. The obelisk presently on the site in London is a replica which was erected in 1989.
1852, Tuesday October 5 , The new City House of Correction was opened in the fields of Holloway. Originally designed to hold 283 men 60 women and 61 juveniles it became part of the state system in 1877 and a women-only prison in 1902. The foundation stone carried the inscription MAY GOD PRESERVE THE CITY OF LONDON AND MAKE THIS PLACE A TERROR TO EVIL DOERS.
1919, Sunday October 5, Birth of the English actor Donald Pleasence.
1923, Friday October 5, Birth of the British actress Glynis Johns.
1930, Sunday October 5, The British airship R101 the world's largest dirigible at that time crashed in France en route to India; the British air minister was among the 48 killed.
1936, Monday October 5, The Jarrow march of unemployed shipyard workers started its southward journey to London.
1536, Friday October 6, Death of the English Bible translator William Tyndale.
1732, Friday October 6, Birth of the English Astronomer Royal Nevil Maskelyne.
1823, Monday October 6 , The Diorama a panoramic entertainment was opened in Regent's Park. It was devised by Louis Jacques Daguerre (the inventor of "daguerreotype") and was built in just four months at a cost of £ 10000 (£564234.45 today). The architect was Nash and the interiors were by Pugin. It was hugely popular. On Easter Monday 1824 the takings amounted to £200 (£10389.87 today).
1827, Saturday October 6 , Hammersmith Bridge the first suspension bridge in London was opened. Designed by William Tierney Clarke it had a central span of 422 feet and incorporated a mid-river steamboat pier so that services could operate at both low and high tides.
1884, Monday October 6 , The Metropolitan Railway extended its line from Tower Hill to Mansion House and therefore completed what became the Circle Line on the underground railway system.
1891, Tuesday October 6, Death of the English newsagent bookseller and statesman William Henry Smith. His appointement as First Lord of the Admiralty ws lampooned by Gilbert in HMS Pinafore.
1892, Thursday October 6, Death of the English poet Alfred Tennyson.
1896, Tuesday October 6, Death of the English novelist George du Maurier.
1939, Friday October 6, Birth of the English writer and TV presenter Melvyn Bragg.
1978, Friday October 6, London Underground's first woman driver started work.
1992, Tuesday October 6, Death of the English actor Denholm Elliott.
1191, Monday October 7, London received its 'commune' status from Prince John. William Longchamp chancellor of Richard I who managed the affairs of the kingdom whilst Richard was on crusade was deeply unpopular. On the arrival of Prince John from France he addressed the leading citizens of London and urged them to support the king against John who was he claimed about to usurp the throne. He failed and fled to the Tower. The citizens received John and acclaimed him as Richard's heir. Longchamp was deposed. For this John confirmed the city's corporate rights which it enjoys to this day.
1573, Wednesday October 7, Birth of the archbishop of Canterbury William Laud.
1806, Tuesday October 7, The first carbon paper was patented by its English inventor Ralph Wedgwood.
1922, Saturday October 7, Death of the English Music Hall entertainer Marie Lloyd.
1943, Thursday October 7, Death of the English author Radclyffe Hall.
1957, Monday October 7, Birth of the English ice skater Jane Torvill.
1986, Tuesday October 7, The Independent newspaper was launched.
1991, Monday October 7, The Sunday Sport became a daily.
331BCE, Wednesday October 1, Alexander the Great defeated Darius III at Arbela.
1684, Wednesday October 1, Death of the French dramatist Pierre Corneille.
1865, Sunday October 1, Birth of the US pianist Vladimir Horowitz.
1865, Sunday October 1, Birth of the French composer Paul Dukas.
1908, Thursday October 1, The first Model T produced in Detroit Michigan was introduced by Henry Ford.
1918, Tuesday October 1, The Arab forces of Emir Faisal with British officer T E Lawrence captured Damascus from the Turks.
1924, Wednesday October 1, Birth of the 39th American president Jimmy Carter.
1933, Sunday October 1, Birth of the Irish actor Richard Harris.
1936, Thursday October 1, General Francisco Franco took office as head of Spain's Nationalist government.
1938, Saturday October 1, German forces entered Sudetenland Czechoslovakia annexed by Hitler under the Munich Agreement.
1949, Saturday October 1, The People's Republic of China was proclaimed with Mao Zedong as its chairman.
1971, Friday October 1, Disneyworld the world's largest amusement resort was opened in Florida.
1988, Saturday October 1, Mikhail Gorbachev was elected president of the USSR by Supreme Soviet.
1608, Sunday October 2, The first telescope was demonstrated by the Dutch lens maker Hans Lipperschey.
1852, Saturday October 2, Birth of the Scottish chemist William Ramsay.
1869, Saturday October 2, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi Birth of the Indian leader.
1870, Sunday October 2, Rome became the capital of the newly unified Italy.
1901, Wednesday October 2, The British Royal Navy's first submarine built by Vickers was launched at Barrow.
1920, Saturday October 2, Death of the German composer Max Bruch.
1942, Friday October 2, The British cruiser Curacao sank with the loss of 338 lives after colliding with the liner Queen Mary off the coast of Donegal.
1985, Wednesday October 2, US film star Rock Hudson became the first celebrity to die of AIDS.
1990, Tuesday October 2, The German Democratic Republic ceased to exist at midnight.
1226, Saturday October 3, Death of the Italian founder of the Franciscan order St Francis of Assisi.
1906, Wednesday October 3, SOS was established as an international distress signal replacing the call sign CQD. "CQ" was an established telegraphic code to identify a general call, "D" was added to indicate distress. It is sometimes erroneously said to stand for "Come Quick Danger."
1916, Tuesday October 3, Birth of the Scottish author James Herriot.
1925, Saturday October 3, Birth of the American author Gore Vidal.
1952, Friday October 3, The first British atomic bomb was detonated on the Monte Bello Islands off W Australia.
1954, Sunday October 3, The Manchester Sunday paperEmpire News sets up its first Cardiff edition as 'Wales's Own Sunday Paper: Printed in Wales for Wales'.
1987, Saturday October 3, Death of the French dramatist Jean Anouilh.
1990, Wednesday October 3, East and West Germany were officially reunified with Berlin as the capital.
1669, Monday October 4, Death of the Dutch painter Rembrandt.
1720, Tuesday October 4, Birth of the Italian architect Giambattista Piranesi.
1892, Monday October 4, Birth of the American comedian Buster Keaton.
1905, Wednesday October 4, Orville Wright became the first to fly an aircraft for over 33 minutes.
1910, Tuesday October 4, Portugal was proclaimed a republic when King Manuel II was driven from the country by a revolution.
1924, Saturday October 4, Birth of the American film actor Charlton Heston.
1957, Friday October 4, The USSR's Sputnik I the first space satellite was launched.
1965, Monday October 4, Pope Paul VI visited New York to address the UN becoming the first pope to visit the USA.
1993, Monday October 4, During the collapse of the USSR, rebels holding out in a Moscow parliament building surrendered after fire broke out.
1713, Monday October 5, Birth of the French philosopher Denis Diderot.
1830, Tuesday October 5, Birth of the 21st American president Chester Alan Arthur.
1880, Tuesday October 5, Death of the French composer Jacques Offenbach.
1880, Tuesday October 5, The earliest 'ball pen' with its own ink supply and retractable tip was patented by Alonzo T Cross.
1934, Friday October 5, Death of the French film director. Jean Vigo.
1936, Monday October 5, Birth of the Czech dramatist and president Vaclav Havel.
1954, Tuesday October 5, Birth of the Irish musician Bob Geldof.
1967, Thursday October 5, The first majority verdict by a jury in Britain was taken in Brighton.
1970, Monday October 5, Anwar Sadat succeeded Gamal Nasser as president of Egypt.
1974, Saturday October 5, IRA bombs killed 5 and injured 65 in two public houses in Guildford Surrey.
1993, Tuesday October 5, Papal encyclical Veritatis Splendor (The Splendour of Truth) was published; it condemned relative moral judgements and affirmed Catholic moral teaching.
1769, Tuesday October 6, Captain James Cook aboard the Endeavour landed in New Zealand.
1883, Saturday October 6, The Orient Express completed its first run from Paris to Constantinople (now Istanbul) in nearly 78 hours.
1914, Tuesday October 6, Birth of the Norwegian ethnologist Thor Heyerdahl.
1968, Sunday October 6, The first three places in the American Grand Prix were taken by British drivers: Jackie Stewart Graham Hill and John Surtees.
1981, Tuesday October 6, One day after the 11th anniversary of his election to office Egyptian President Anwar Sadat was assassinated by Muslim extremists.
1993, Wednesday October 6, Death of the Irish actor Cyril Cusack.
1849, Sunday October 7, Death of the American novelist and poet Edgar Allan Poe.
1885, Wednesday October 7, Birth of the Danish physicist Niels Bohr.
1919, Tuesday October 7, The Dutch airline KLM the oldest existing airline was established.
1928, Sunday October 7, Herbert Hoover was elected president of the USA.
1949, Friday October 7, The German Democratic Republic or East Germany was formed.
1955, Friday October 7, Birth of the Chinese cellist Yo Yo Ma.
1958, Tuesday October 7, The first photograph of the far side of the Moon was transmitted from the USSR's Lunik I.
1967, Saturday October 7, Death of the American deep-freezing inventor Clarence Birdseye.
1989, Saturday October 7, Death of the American actress Bette Davis.